Unced agenda 21 chapter 17 bankruptcy

unced agenda 21 chapter 17 bankruptcy

Under D.N.J. LBR , the Clerk shall close a chapter 11 case days after confirmation of the plan. The attached flow chart illustrates the Court’s procedure for closing these cases. It also highlights an individual chapter 11 debtor’s responsibilities prior . Agenda 21 was the final document of the United Nation Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Brazil in It is an action plan with specific topics. [14] This document does not create an actual dispute resolution mechanism, but, perhaps more importantly, it suggests the creation of a norm or custom of including. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by more than Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 . unced agenda 21 chapter 17 bankruptcy

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If fully implemented, Agenda 21 would have the government involved in every aspect of life of every human on earth. Interestingly, in April , fourteen months before Earth Summit, Prince Charles held a private two day international conference aboard the royal yacht Britannia, moored off the coast of Brazil.

His goal was to bring together key international figures in an attempt to achieve a degree of harmony between the various countries that would gather at the Summit. At the summit nations officially signed Agenda 21 and many more have followed since. Nearly 12, local and federal authorities have legally committed themselves to the Agenda.

In practice this means that all their plans and policies must begin with an assessment of how the plan or policy meets the requirements of Agenda 21, and no plans or policies are allowed to contradict any part of the Agenda. Local authorities are audited by UN inspectors and the results of the audits are placed on the UN website.

You can see how many local authorities in your country were bound by Agenda 21 in here. The number has increased significantly since then. It is easy to overlook local government since people are saturated with too much information in the internet age. Compounding this is the fact that Agenda 21 is a dull topic, and it becomes understandable how it has been able to fly mostly under the radar since , slowly working its way into our cities and counties.

Agenda 21, which reportedly means an agenda for the 21st century, is a United Nations program launched in for the vague purpose of achieving global " sustainable development. Bush have all signed Executive Orders implementing it. Since then, the U. Agenda 21 ostensibly seeks to promote "sustainability" the latest revisionist word for "environmentalism," since Americans have learned too many negative things about environmentalism.

When will the level of carbon emissions be low enough? How much must we reduce our consumption of fossil fuels? Preserving the environment is a dubious science, and what steps are really necessary to protect the environment are anyone's guess.

Agenda 21 promotes European socialist goals that will erode our freedoms and liberties. Most of its vague, lofty sounding phrases cause the average person's eyes to glaze over, making it easier to sneak into our communities. The environmentalist goals include atmospheric protection, combating pollution, protecting fragile environments, and conserving biological diversity.

Agenda 21 goes well beyond environmentalism. Other broad goals include combating poverty, changing consumption patterns, promoting health, and reducing private property ownership, single-family homes, private car ownership, and privately owned farms. It seeks to cram people into small livable areas and institute population control. Once these vague, overly broad goals are adopted, they are being interpreted to allow massive amounts of new, overreaching regulations.

Joyce Morrison from Eco-logic Powerhouse says Agenda 21 is so broad it will affect the way we "live, eat, learn and communicate. Since the U. The goal of "sustainability," which comes down to using government to heavy-handedly accomplish vague goals of caring for the earth, goes contrary to our free market capitalism.

Even more unfair, struggling third world countries and communist countries that cannot financially afford to comply with the onerous environmental regulations will continue their high levels of fossil fuel consumption, and the U.

The amount of government Obama has directed to administer this is staggering. Obama committed thousands of federal employees in 25 federal agencies to promote sustainability in rural areas, completely bypassing Congressional approval. Some of these agencies are unrelated to rural areas.

The agencies will entice local communities into adopting Agenda 21 programs by providing them millions of dollars in grants. Tea party groups, talk show host G lenn Beck , and organisations like Freedom Advocates , Catholic Investigative Agency and Sovereignty International are working hard to expose Agenda 21, but there is only so much a few can do.

It will be difficult to defeat Agenda 21 because it requires changing the attitudes of over separate localities across the U. Ideally, a conservative president could roll back the executive orders implementing it, but considering Republican President H.

Bush was a disappointment in this area that may be too much to hope for. If Republicans take over Congress they could challenge the huge power grab Obama made with Executive Order and ban Agenda 21 in the U. For now, local activists must champion this issue, much like Texans for Accountable Government has done , educating local boards and commissions and serving on them.

Agenda 21 is a tedious and overwhelming topic, and until it can be explained in an easy-to-understand way that interests the average American, it will be tough to beat back. Read more from our sources:. They really believe that the only way to fix the problem is to control the flow of resources and wealth, which literally means changing human civilization and the way we live.

This is an immense subject and many more articles are available in the Agenda 21 section of this website. The problem is, that requires a forced transformation of our entire society to comply, and that ultimately leads to a thirst for power and topdown control — that will eventually lead to tyranny.

Sustainable Development calls for changing the very infrastructure of the nation, away from private ownership and control of property to nothing short of central planning of the entire economy — often referred to as top-down control. Where and when did the term Sustainable Development originate? For the first time the environment was tied to the tried and true Socialist goals of international redistribution of wealth.

Said the report;. The term appeared in full force in , in a United Nations initiative called the U. Sustainable Development Agenda 21, or as it has become known around the world, simply Agenda In fact, the Earth Summit was one of the provisions called for in the Brundtland report as a means of implementing Sustainable Development around the world.

More than nations adopted Agenda 21 as official policy. President George H. Bush was the signatory for the United States. What is Sustainable Development? Proponents of Sustainable Development argue that it is about preserving resources for future generations.

Nothing in theory. That principle would be used to consider regulations guiding everything you eat, the kind of home you are allowed to live in, the method of transportation you use to get to work, what kind of work you may have, the way you dispose of waste, perhaps even the number of children you may have, as well as the quality and amount of education your children may receive.

Sustainable development encompasses every aspect of our lives. According to its authors, the objective of sustainable development is to integrate economic, social, and environmental policies in order to achieve reduced consumption, social equity, and the preservation and restoration of biodiversity. Top Sustainability Fallacies: Lie: Sustainability is about protecting the environment Reality: It is a political movement to replace capitalism with governement control of everything Lie: Free market capitalism is the principle cause of planetary degradation and is not sustainable Reality: It is government control of the economy that is not sustainable Lie: Private property is a source of social injustice, and too valuable to be subject to free markets Reality: The right to own and use private property is a fundamental source of wealth creation Lie: Green energy creates jobs Reality: Green energy is unreliable, uncompetitive and renders industry unable to compete in world parkets Lie: C02 is a pollutant Reality: C02 is the gas that all plants and crops breathe.

If they could there would be no cars in Manhattan Lie: Compact urban development is more affordable for government Reality: Empirical evidence proves compace development requires higher tax rates. Urbanisation strains police, fire, educational and social services Lie: Afforable housing for people of all income levels will ensure healthier better balanced neighbourhoods Reality: Low income housing usually creates more problems than it solves thereby damaging communities.

The Sustainablists insist that society be transformed into feudal-like governance by making Nature the central organizing principle for our economy and society, not human need or wants. This idea essentially elevates nature above Humans [we are all on this planet, their premise is bullshit].

As such, every societal decision would first be questioned as to how it might effect the environment. To achieve this, Sustainablist policy focuses on three components; land use, education, and population control and population reduction. Some officials claim that Sustainable Development is just a local effort to protect the environment and contain development -- just your local leaders putting together a local vision for the community.

Yet, the exact language and tactics for implementation of Sustainable Development are being used in nearly every city around the globe from Lewiston, Maine to Singapore. Local indeed. In short, Sustainable Development is the process by which the world is being reorganized around a central principle of state collectivism using the environment as bai t.

One of the best ways to understand what Sustainable Development actually is can be found by discovering what is NOT sustainable. They are all part of the efforts to modify consumer behavior to accept less, deal with higher energy prices, restrict water use and place severe limitations on use of private property — all under the environmental excuse. That makes it easy for any activist group to issue concerns or warnings by news release or questionable report against and industry or private activity, and have those warnings quickly turned into public policy — just in case.

Many are now finding non-elected regional governments and governing councils enforcing policy and regulations. As these policies are implemented, locallyelected officials are actually losing their own power and decision-making ability in their elected offices. Related: Agenda What Sustainable Development Really Means For You The Three E's According to its authors, the objective of Sustainable Development is to integrate economic, social, and environmental policies in order to achieve reduced consumption, social equity, and the preservation and restoration of biodiversity.

The Sustainable Development logo used in most literature on the subject contains three connecting circles labeled along the lines of Social Equity; Economic Prosperity; and Ecological Integrity known commonly as the 3 E's. It is a social injustice to keep our borders closed.

It is a social injustice for some to be bosses and others to be merely workers. Social justice is a major premise of Sustainable Development. Another word for social justice is Socialism or Marxism. Today, the phrase is used throughout Sustainablist literature. So too, is business ownership. Under Sustainable Development individual human wants, needs, and desires are to be conformed to the views and dictates of social planners.

It dictates that, if the conditions of the poor are to be improved, wealth must first be taken from the rich. In the free-market of the past, most businesses were started by individuals who saw a need for a product or service and they set out to fill it. Most business owners were happy to be left alone to take their chances to run their businesses on their own, not encumbered by a multiplicity of government regulations. If they failed, most found a way to try again.

In order to give themselves an advantage over competition, some businesses -- particularly large corporations — now find a great advantage in dealing directly with government, actively lobbying for legislation that will inundate smaller companies with regulations that they cannot possibly comply with or even keep up with.

If the two should ever become combined, control of such massive power can lead only to tyranny. It definitely does not mean people and companies trading freely with each other. Its real effect is to redistribute manufacturing, wealth, and jobs out of our borders and to lock away natural resources. They in turn are partnered with the politicians who use their legislative and administrative powers to raid the treasury to fund and enforce the scheme.

Of course, as the chosen corporations, which become a new elite, stamp out the need for competition through government power, the real loser is the consumers who no longer count in market decisions. Government grants are now being used by industry to create mandated green products like wind and solar power.

Products are put on the market at little risk to the industry, leaving consumers a more limited selection from which to choose. True free markets are eliminated in favor of controlled economies which dictate the availability and quality of products. Ecological Integrity. This quote lays down the ground rules for the entire Sustainable Development agenda. It says humans are nothing special — just one strand in the nature of things or, put another way, humans are simply biological resources.

Funny that, the Cabal see us as "Human Resources" also. What a coincidence.. Sustainablist policy is to oversee any issue in which man interacts with nature — which, of course, is literally everything. And because the environment always comes first, there must be great restrictions over private property ownership and control.

This is necessary, Sustainablists say, because humans only defile nature. Under Sustainable Development there can be no concern over individual rights. Individual human wants, needs, and desires are conformed to the views and dictates of social planners. Under Sustainable Development, limited government, as advocated by our Founding Fathers, is impossible because, we are told, the real or perceived environmental crisis is too great.

Only government can be trusted to respond. The politically based environmental movement provides Sustainablists camouflage as they work to transform systems of government, justice, and economics.

It is a masterful mixture of socialism with its top down control of the tools of the economy and fascism where property is owned in name only — with no individual owner control. Sustainable Development is the worst of both the left and the right. It is not liberal, nor is it conservative. It is a new kind of tyranny that, if not stopped, will surely lead us to a new Dark Ages of pain and misery yet unknown to mankind.

UN Report: Habitat I Conference: "Land cannot be treated as an ordinary asset, controlled by individuals and subject to the pressures and inefficiencies of the market. Private land ownership is also a principle instrument of accumulation and concentration of wealth, therefore, contributers to social injustice. Sawhill, Pres. The Nature Conservancy Jay D. Hair, Pres. Ruckelshaus, Chm. With great fanfare the Council issued a comprehensive report containing all the guidelines on how our government was to be reinvented under sustainable development.

Those guidelines were created to direct policy for every single federal agency, state government and local community government. Their purpose was to translate the recommendations set forth in Agenda 21 into public policy administered by the federal government. There are four very specific routes being used.

It is a diabolical plan to herd humans off the rural lands and into human settlements. Crazy you say! Not so fast. But how do you remove people from the land? One step at a time. A national park will do. A huge place where there is no human activity. For example, Yellowstone National Park, devoid of human habitation can serve as its center.

Then a buffer zone is established around the reserve. Inside the buffer only limited human activity is allowed. Slowly, through strict regulations, that area is squeezed until human activity becomes impossible. Once that is accomplished, the biosphere is extended to the former buffer zone borders — and then a new buffer zone is created around the now-larger biosphere and the process starts again.

In that way, the Biosphere Reserve acts like a cancer cell, ever expanding, until all human activity is stopped. And there are many tools in place to stop human activity and grow the reserve. Lock away natural resources by creating national parks. It shuts down the mines -- and they go out of business.

Shut off the forest. Locking away land cuts the tax base. Eventually the town dies. Keep it up and there is nothing to keep the people on the land — so they head to the cities. The wilderness grows — just like Dave Foreman planned. It comes in many names and many programs.

Heritage areas, land management, wolf and bear reintroduction, rails to trails, conservation easements, open space , and many more. Each of these programs is designed to make it just a little harder to live on the land — a little more expensive — a little more hopeless, literally herding people off their land and into designated human habitat areas — cities.

In the West, where vast areas of open space make it easy to impose such polices there are several programs underway to remove humans from the land.

The Alaska Wildlands Project seeks to lock away and control almost the entire state. How Did We Get Here? Smart Growth The second path is called Smart Growth.

The process essentially puts a line around a city, locking off any growth outside that line. Inside the circle, concerted efforts are made to discourage the use of cars in preference to public transportation, restricting mobility. Because there is a restriction on space inside the controlled city limits, there is a created shortage of land and houses, so prices go up.

That means populations will have to be controlled, because now there is no room to contain more people. Those not in compliance will be fined and will not be able to sell their homes. Homeowners will not have control of such meters. Instead, the electric company will determine the necessary temperature inside each home. Government agencies or local policy boards will be tasked with the responsibility to conduct an energy audit in each home to determine the steps necessary to bring the home into energy compliance.

There is now a new push to control food production under the label of Sustainable Farming. Food sheds are now being advocated. These are essentially government run farms located just outside the smart growth area circling the city. Food is to be grown using strict guidelines which dictate what kinds of food is to be produced and the farming practices to be used.

These are essentially based on the blue print of Chinese Agrarian villages that cannot possibly grow enough food to feed the community unless populations are tightly controlled. True Sustainable farming programs discourage importing goods from outside the community. Stake Holder Councils Inside the cities, government is increasingly controlled by an elite ruling class called stake holder councils.

These are mostly Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, which, like thieves in the night, converge on the community to stake their claim to enforce their own private agendas. The function of legitimately — elected government within the system votes to create a system of boards, councils and even regional governments to handle every aspect of day-to-day operation of the community.

Once in place, the councils and boards basically replace the power of elected officials with non-elected, appointed rulers answerable to no one. The councils are controlled by a small minority in the community, but they are all - powerful. They force citizens to seek permission usually denied for any changes to private property. They use such excuses as historic preservation, water use restrictions, energy use, and open space restrictions. They over-burden or even destroy business, creating stiff regulations on manufacturing and small business in the community.

They may dictate the number of outlets a business may have in a community, not matter what the population demands. For example, in San Francisco there can only be seven McDonalds. They can dictate the kind of building materials owners can use in their private home — or whether one can build on their property at all. Then, if they do grant a permit for building, they might not decide to let the property owner acquire water and electricity for the new home — and they may or may not give you a reason for being turned down.

As part of Sustainable health care, they may even dictate that you get the proper exercise — as determined by the government.

Again, San Francisco has built a new federal building — the greenest ever built. The elevators will only stop on every third floor so riders are forced to use stairs — for their own health, of course. These councils fit almost perfectly the definition of a State Soviet: a system of councils that report to an apex council and then implement a predetermined outcome. Soviets are the operating mechanism of a government-controlled economy. So Many Things Making So Little Sense: US EPA drives industries overseas where the pollution increases EPA embraces ethanol while blaming farming for pollution Master plans across America overtly ignore property rights Environmental nooses rob property rights and individual freedoms based on unsettled science, distorted statistics and exaggerated predictions Focus on Social Equity eclipsing life-liberty property Why?

Municipal master plans have become manifestos People in tears across America. There are certain areas where private business contracts to do jobs such as running school cafeterias through a competitive bid system.

That type of arrangement certain does serve the tax payers and provides better services. In truth, many PPPs are nothing more than government-sanctioned monopolies in which a few businesses are granted special favors like tax breaks, the power of eminent domain, non-compete clauses and specific guarantees for return on their investments. That means they can fix prices, charge beyond what the market demands, and they can use the power of government to put competition out of business.

That is not free enterprise. And it is these global corporations that are pushing the green agenda. If you can stomach reading this horse shit, click on the image above PPPs were the driving force behind the Trans Texas Corridor, using eminent domain to take more than , acres of private land - sanctioned by the partnership with the Texas government.

And PPPs are taking over highways and local water treatment plants in communities across the nation. PPPs in control of the water system can control water consumption — a major part of the Sustainable Development blueprint. For its part of the partnership, government passed regulations that keep gas prices high to make them more inviting. The federal government has entered into many partnerships with alternative energy companies in a move to force wind power and solar power on an uninterested public.

Again, such industries only exist though the power and of government determined to enforce a certain political agenda. They would never survive in an honest free market. Using government to ban its own product, General Electric is forcing the mercury- laden green light bulb, costing 5 times the price of incandescent bulbs. Such is the reality of green industry, which depends more on government subsidy and grants than on customers.

To play ball in the PPP game means accepting the mantra of Sustainable Development and helping to implement it, even if it means going against your own product. It is not free enterprise, but a Mussolini-type fascism of government and private industry organized in a near impenetrable force of power.

Prevent harm as the best method of environmental protection and, when knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach. Communitarianism with forced sterilization?

Eradicate poverty as an ethical, social, and environmental imperative. Ensure that economic activities and institutions at all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable manner. Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care , and economic opportunity.

Integrate into formal education and life-long learning the knowledge, values, and skills needed for a sustainable way of life. What Kinds of Groups Promote this in the U. Many people ask how dangerous international policies can suddenly turn up in state and local government, all seemingly uniform to those in communities across the nation and around the globe. The answer — meet ICLEI, a non-profit, private foundation, dedicated to helping locally elected representatives fully implement Agenda 21 in the community.

Currently there are over American cities in which ICLEI is being paid dues with tax dollars from city councils to implement and enforce Sustainable Development. ICLEI is there to assure that the mayors keep their promises and meet their goals. Using environmental protection as the excuse, these programs are about reinventing government with a specific political agenda.

ICLEI and others are dedicated to transforming every community in the nation to the Agenda 21 blueprint. They know that Congress has written legislation providing grants for cities that implement Sustainablist policy.

They agitate to get the cities to accept the grants. In the end, through such tactics, the NGOs usually get their way. IN fact there are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of non-profits, NGOs and planning groups living off the grant money, working to enforce Sustainable Development policy at every level of government.

Business as usual will not suffice. It came into being in and can be found in literally every community in the nation. It is the planning guide preferred by most urban and regional planners. Christchurch, New Zealand ICMA provides technical and management assistance, training, and information resources in the areas of performance measurement, ethics education and training, community and economic development, environmental management, technology, and other topics to its members and the broader local government community.

They are aided in their efforts through such as the U. Conference of Mayors, National Governors Association, National League of Cities, the National Association of County Administrators and several more groups that are supposed to represent elected officials.

The Renaissance Planning Group is an urban planning firm. Florida Forever is the largest public land acquisition program of its kind in the United States. With approximately 9. Propaganda from idiots for idiots In , the Virginia state legislature passed HB mandating that counties with the prescribed growth rate establish high density urban development areas. This requirement by the state forces local governments to compromise your private property through zoning measures called for in the Smart Growth program for sustainable development.

The American Farmland Trust AFT formed in , works to acquire and control farmer development rights and the purchase of Agriculture Easements which drastically reduce, if not eliminate private ownership of the land. Statement of Principles: "We believe planning should be a tool for allocating resources That is simply the excuse for the policies being implemented in its name. The comprehensive land use plans are being steered by planning groups through manipulation by facilitated stakeholder consensus councils.

The predetermined outcome severely restricts land use and compromises private property ownership in an already distressed market. They answer to no one and they are run by zealots with their own political agenda imposing international laws and regulations. Local homeowners have no say in the process and in most cases are shut out.

Sometimes they are literally thrown out of council meetings because they want to discuss how a regulation is going to affect their property or livelihood. Communities have dealt with local problems for years. But locally elected town councils and commissioners, which meet and discuss problems with the citizens, are how this nation was built and prospered. No matter where you live, rest assured Agenda 21 policies are being implemented in your community.

It is about establishing global governance and abandoning the principles of Natural Law on which America was founded. The politically-based environmental movement provides Sustainablists camouflage as they work to transform global systems of government, justice, and economics. It is bad policy pushed by both liberal and conservatives.

It is a new kind of tyranny that, if not stopped, will surely lead all human kind to a new Dark Ages of pain and misery. What has Sustainability Become?

Unfortunately, the environmental movement has been hijacked as a convenient excuse to attack capitalism; blame America; transfer wealth; impinge on Constitutional rights; and install a government-run socio-economic system. United Nations paradigm: Capitalism and private property rights are not sustainable, and pose the single greatest threat to the world's ecosystem and social equity. It comes wrapped in a plain green package labelled "Smart Growth" or "Sustainability":.

To begin the effort to fight back against Sustainable Development it is vital to first understand the massive structure you are facing.

You need to know who the players are and you need to understand the political world your officials are operating in. In most communities, you mayor, city council members and county commissioners are automatically members of national organizations like the National Conference of Mayors, National League of Cities, and the national associations for city council members, and the same for commissioners.

Those in the state government also have the National Governors Association and state legislators have their national organization. For the past twenty years or more, each and every one of these national organizations have been promoting Sustainable Development and related policies.

The National Mayors Conference and the National Governors Association have been leaders in this agenda, many times working directly with UN organizations to promote the policy. They are told of legislation that will be soon be implemented, and they are even provided sample legislation to introduce in their communities. They arrive in your community with blue prints, state and federal plans, grants and lots of contacts in high places.

There is also a second horde involved in the Sustainablist invasion — state and federal agency officials including EPA agents; air and water quality agents; Interior Department officials, HUD officials, energy officials, Commerce Department officials, and on and on — all targeting your locally elected officials with policy, money, regulations, reports, special planning boards, meetings, and conferences, all promoting the exact same agenda. Think of the affect all of this has on a poor local official who just thought he would run for office and serve his community.

This is his reality. This is what he thinks government is supposed to be because, after all, everyone he is dealing with says so. Now, as he is surrounded by all of these important, powerful folks, along comes a local citizen who tells him that some guy named Tom DeWeese says all of these programs are from the UN and are taking away our liberty. He said what?

I have another meeting to go to. If we are going to successfully fight Agenda 21, it is vitally important that we all recognize this reality as we plan to deal with it and defeat it. With that in mind, I offer the following ideas. If you try to attend local meetings by yourself you will be ignored.

You will need others to plan and implement strategy. You have family and friends. Start with them. Ask them to help look into some local policies. Check out of there is a local tea party or even a local Republican group.

Churches are a target of such policies. Alert people at your church and ask them to help fight back. Find people to help you! First, who are the players in your community. What is their agenda? What other communities have they operated in? What projects? What results? Who are their members in your community? Finding this information may be the hardest of your efforts. They like to operate out of the spotlight.

It probably will require that you attend lots of meetings and hearings. Take note of who is there and their role. Do this quietly. You may have to ask questions and that may raise some eyebrows. But stay out of the way as much as possible. Second, get all the details on the plans your community is working on. Has there already been legislation passed? Most of this information can be found on the town website. For each motion, the agenda shall provide the title, docket number and date filed.

Supporting papers shall be similarly listed. Objection Information. For each motion, the agenda shall provide the objection deadline and any objections filed, and provide the docket number and the date filed, if available. Status Information. For each motion, the agenda shall provide whether the matter is going forward, whether a continuance is requested and any opposition to the continuance, if known , whether any or all of the objections have been resolved and any other pertinent status information.

Adversary Proceedings. When an adversary proceeding is scheduled, the agenda shall indicate the adversary proceeding number in addition to the information required by Local Rule b. Hearing Binders. The agenda shall be submitted to the respective Judge's chambers in a hearing binder containing copies of all documents relevant to matters scheduled to be considered by the Court at such hearing. The Secretariat is to service and report to the Assembly and the Council.

The Secretariat will be supported by the Bank but be functionally independent. The CEO is to be appointed for three years by the Council on the joint recommendation of the implementing agencies. The implementing agencies continue to be the same and they are expected to make arrangements with other institutions—multilateral, private, or public—for preparation and execution of GEF projects.

A new Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel will be established by UNEP in consultation with the other agencies and on the basis of guidelines and criteria established by the Council. Decisions of the Assembly and Council normally will be taken by consensus. In the case of the Council, if consensus is not reached, any member may ask for a formal vote.

A formal vote requires a double-weighted majority: an affirmative vote representing 60 percent of the total number of participants and 60 percent of the total contributions. The negotiating process, the instrument negotiated, the resulting structure of the new GEF, and how they fit in a wider context merit the following comments. The negotiating process was open not only to donors but also to all states, as opposed to the pilot phase negotiation, which was donor driven.

The more active participation of the beneficiaries has deeply influenced the results. In this respect, the negotiations reflected the North-South confrontation that has come to characterize the negotiations of environmental conventions in recent years. They reflected the concern for efficiency of the donors, as opposed to the concern for equity of representation of developing countries.

The latter consider it their right to develop and to use their own resources, bearing in mind the pollution generated in the North. The instrument negotiated is not a treaty, although the negotiations gave the impression that one was being negotiated.

In the end, it is an instrument negotiated by governments, but it will not be ratified by them as a treaty would be. Any amendment or termination must be approved by the Assembly upon the recommendation of the Council, but it becomes effective only after each of the implementing agencies and the Bank, as trustee, adopt it in accordance with the respective rules and procedural requirements. The resulting structure resembles very closely that of a new international organization, except that the negotiated instrument refrains from specifically saying so and from giving the organs of the GEF the power to contract.

This lack of a separate personality is reflected in several of the ways in which the new GEF is expected to operate. For instance, the relationship of the GEF with the Climate Change and Biological Diversity Conventions is to be approved by the Council, but the instruments embodying it in the form of agreements or arrangements are to be formalized by the Bank as trustee.

This raises the question, When does an entity come to exist independently from its sponsors? In the wider context of international cooperation, the GEF is an interesting experiment to maximize the comparative advantage of existing institutions without creating new ones.

While the cooperation has not been perfect, it has worked sufficiently well to keep the GEF as the basic arrangement for financing and implementing environment projects in the future.

As restructured, the GEF provides an umbrella for cooperation and consultation to implement the objectives of framework conventions as individual protocols are added. It appears to be a valid counterpoint on the financial side to the treaty-making style that has developed in the environment area. It is sufficiently practical and flexible to adapt to an evolving field while making use of existing structures.

The coordination of the structures set up under each of the conventions and the GEF itself will no doubt be a test of the system. To the extent that the Ozone Projects Trust Fund can be considered a precedent, it has worked reasonably well; however, there might be more of an overlap in the future between the GEF itself and the structures of each one of the conventions. User Account. IMF eLibrary. Advanced search Help.

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