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Pedro s tamales bankruptcy attorneys

pedro s tamales bankruptcy attorneys

Norton was the second County Judge, succeeding Agustin Olvera and living with the latter's family at the Plaza; and it was from Norton's Court of Sessions, in May, , that the dark-skinned Juan Flores was sent to the State prison, although few persons suspected him to be guilty of such 48 criminal tendencies as he later developed. Norton. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. The Version table provides details related to the release that this issue/RFE will be addressed. Unresolved: Release in which this issue/RFE will be addressed. Resolved: Release in which this issue/RFE has been resolved. Fixed: Release in which this issue/RFE has been karacto.xyz release containing this fix may be available for download as an Early Access Release or a General Availability . pedro s tamales bankruptcy attorneys

For example: a boy named Eduardo was born on June twelf th. Gala y derroche: two nouns translated by a noun and an adjectivc in English. The reader may suspect — correctly — that the style of conversation is a trine stilted for a buUfighter. However, in the United States prize fighters are often represented in newspaper interviews as talking like a country schoolmaster.

The second suerte is by the banderilleros who plant darts with iron points in the bullas back and shoulders as he charges. The third suerte is the killing of the bull by the matador — alone.

Se despide a la bestia with a sword which is driven in between the shoulders and, if properly handled, severs the spinal cord — the bull's death being instantaneous. En efecto: mrely! El pobrecito Veraguas: the poor Veraguas hull. Nada, que no toleramos: not at all, for we do not allow. He seems not to know the difference. Biposta is an Italian word denoting a return hJow or thrust in fencing.

The bull charges at the red cloak behind which the man stands. At exactly the right moment the cloak is snatched away and the man sidesteps the charging bull.

Casi insensible al dolor may be questioned by the Humane Society, Spanish speaking peoples not being, as a rule, sympathetic with animal suffering. It is another awesome revelation of the fact that there is no beast so beastly as the human beast. Certain obvious differences, however, in tliese two equally brutal and brutalizing sports will appear. He maj even be hamstrung, if too brave a fighter. AU this is repugnant to the Yankee's sense of fair play. BuUfights, where allowed, are virtually public holidays, at which ladies las reinas or the highest official dignities preside as an honor.

Gran cosa is an adverbial phrase equivalent to much, or greatly. Note the indefi- niteness implied in the subjunctive pueda. Hidalgo was originally the title of the Spanish lower nobility; eutitled to use the prefix don, a gentleman hy hirth, NOTES He drinks wiiie in moderatiou and his refrescos are innocent combinations of pineapple, Icmou, orange, tamarind, almonds, sugar, wliite of an eggf water, ice, einnamon, etc.

Beer, introduced by the Germans, is dnink to a limited extent; gin, rum, and whisky almost never. The typical Spaniard, and the same is trae of his descendants in America as well, is a frugal and abstemious man. The Spanish guttural sound, the English h strongly aspirated, is, with certain exceptions, rcpresented by g before e and t, and by j before a, o, and u, according to the rules of the Boyal Spanish Aeademy. Its Dictionary and Gram- mar are generally accepted throughout the Spanish-speaking world as authoritative.

Debe ser el Jefe superior del tren: must he the chief official of the train, or that lordly individual in gold lace and brass but- tons known to travelers as the condudory but, as there is no corre- sponding official in European railway service, the European stranger is at a loss f or the proper term. Yo comercio en maderas: I am in the lumber biLsiness, Have a drink with me?

The American custom of treating, buying drinks and refreshments for another per- son, especially for a chance acquaintance, is utterly contrary to Euro- pean usages. Each man, as a matter of course, pays for what he eats, drinks, and smokes.

His is not the Venice of a hallowed past, the proud mistress of the Adriatic, the emporium of early commerce and merchant princes under whose imperious sway sculpture, architecture, painting challenged the admiration of an astonished world, not the Venice that has been the beloved theme of poet, dramatist, and historian of all nations — but another Venice, an imitation Venice, constructed to order, of board, lath, and plaster — spick and span — the paint not yet dry on the walls, but the plumbing irreproachable — a crude, raw, strident Venice, a congenial milieu where the suddenly and offensively rich, of unknown ancestry and dubious antecedents, may flash their diamonds and blow their horns SPANISH- AMERICAN LIFE in peace, uiimolested by any haunting suspicion that the world is laiighing at them in its sleeve.

The coutrast leaves our cultivated European speechless! Se, for himself, dative indirect object ; lo, direct object of the verb. Henee the convenience of the term gringo.

The high-strung, artificial, urban Ufe of the United States is little known in the tropics. A business letter signed with a rubber stamp is treated with eontempt. The addition of "Dictated hut not read" turna the recipient into an implacable enemy.

The fodder for the cattle can be bought from the tavern- keeper, but the travelers provide their own victuals. Often, as here, a participial phrase can be best rendered by an entirely new sentence. The writer begina with alguien singular and shifts to plural in registraban; sentir is fol- lowed by a clause introduced by que, while feel in the translation is f oUowed by a participial phrase — differences in idiom worthy of care- ful attention.

But ponies for exhibition purposes as bad horses are ridden only un til the expert breaker notices that the animal 's strug- gles are gradually flagging. The horse is then let alone.

Some horses are no fools. The music is generally in a plaintive, minor key, but under certain circumstances of time, place, and dramatis personce, is irresistible for susceptible young people. Dicho pozo: dicho, citado, de referencia, etc. The charac- teristic indefinit'eness of the subjunctive is well shown in this phrase. Poco falta para que The petroleum almost reaches or lacles little of reach- ing the river. Todo ha quedado como por el rumbo de Dos Bocas: everything has remainedf or is, just as over towards Dos Bocas.

He has to learn to eat butter. He misses his tortillas, frijoles, and tamales. The courses are prepared and brought in, one at a time, owing to the limitations of the kitchen equipment. The typically Yankee ravenous wrestling match for food at the railway lunch-counter finds no favor in their sight.

The campanario is the tall tower where the bell is hung from a sup- NOTES porting beam by rawhide thongs. The bell is struck by hand with a sort of mallet. In a little while the sun comes out and the rain stops — till the next day, when the phenomenon is repeated.

Ha, 3d sing. Se is the reflexive pronoun, object of the verb. The a in al agente shows that agente is the personal object- ive also. This sort of construction is very common in perfectly correct Spanish. A poco correr: by or after running a little. Also note the refreshing promptness with which the punishment foUowed the erime. The sudden. Modiis vivendi is a Latin expression meaning a mode of living, a compromise or arrangement of a temporary char- acter pending settlement of matters in dispute.

He might have properly added that those institutions date back to the days of Magna Oharta and Habeas Corpus and were the product of centuries of slow accre- tion of political experience. Hidalgo was captured and shot. A marble slab at Chihuahua and monuments at Guanajuato and Orizaba testify to his eminent services in behalf of his country. A la liora de la salida del trabajo: at quitting time. In the interval a hearty meal is taken, foUowed by a siesta. Hubo, siempre hay, gananciosos: there were — there always are — those who profited, In the so-called impersonal conjugation of haber, the verb forms chango for tense and mood, but not for person or number.

The igno- rance and simplicity of the rustic is often the target of urban humor- ists. Necaxa: the power house on the Necaxa river in Puebla, 92 miles from the city, supplies electricity by cables con- ductores en las grandes torres que los sostienen.

Foreign workmen were employed in running the plants until the natives should acquire the proper expe- rience and skill. The foreign managers, superintendents, and heads of departments have as a general rule been retained. The substitu- NOTES tion of Mexican for the original skilled, imported workman has not always been attended with happy resulta. The wealthy class has preferred to remain in the city proper while the poor have gone to the suburbs because the rent was less. The nights are decidedly cool — cooler, in fact, for human beings than the thermometer would suggest, owing to the rarity of the atmosphere.

An overcoat is always necessary after sunset. The annual rainfall, which occurs between April and September, is only about 20 to 25 inches. The same company plays throughout the evening, each show being different. The prompter is very much in evidence. The populace, however, seem to enjoy the monotonous but audible premonition of what is coming, comparing it with the spirited and dramatic rendering by the actors themselves.

When the plot is not too heroic or exotic, the acting is convincing and even artistic; the audi- ence delights in bravura. Las bodegas de Judging from the structure of the building and the character of the occupants of the ground floor, the finca had seen better days. Attorneys-at-law are usually given a title, as in this case, licenciado. The party breaks up at about midnight except on the 23d, when it may last till 2 a.

The castlllito resembles more or less a castle and corresponds to our ' ' set piece ' ' in pyrotechnic displays. El portero is an important personage in a Spanish-American hoiisehold. He is a doorkeeper rather than janitor.

There is but one door from the dwelling house to the street, sometimes large enough f or a carriage to pass. Everybody and everything going to or from the house passes the inspection of the portero. The outer door is closed at about ten o'clock at night. The portero sieeps in an ad ja- cent room or on a mattress near the front door. Entering after ten, one generally gives the portero a tip of cinco centavos or im medio real , which is six cents Mexican money. Various attempts by the govern ment to introduce some sort of system into the chaos have failed.

Por haber Note use of sino foUowing a negativo clause. Ourlosa coincidencia es la de que Laborious attempts to preserve these syntactical niceties should not be made in translation, but it is quite necessary that the student should understand the construction.

Corn soaked in lye is simmered till soft and then ground by hand between metates grinding stones. The resulting masa, as it is called, is spread out on corn husks, and on it is laid the meat stew. The husks with contents roUed up are then put in an earthen jar and steamed till ready for use. The cuts here- with illustrate the process. Henee the translation of the new idea.

Atzcapotzalco: the former being a power station 5 miles Southwest of the city, and the latter about the same distance to the northwest. The two suburbs are connected by a belt Une of railway for freight transfers. Le faltaban Steam escaping through "valves," such as pump, cylinder, or check valves, would make no more noise than is heard in the familiar popping of the safety valve. The furia loca was undoubtedly caused by steam escaping through a broken boiler or flue. The Constitution provides that a person may be incomunicado without communication with the outside world not to exceed 72 hours, but that point is often stretched.

Of course if he was working under the orders of the jefe de patio and acting within the scope of his employment, he was, legally at least, innocent. El del tren de pasajeros The original Mexican practico was to arrest on the spot everybody con- cerned in the siniestro, and to try the case when convenient — the train remaining where it was in the meanwhile.

It may be remarked that while it is necessary that the student should understand thoroughly the syntax of every word in a Spanish sen- tence, a slavishly literal translation is seldom advisable. The differ- ence in the use of phrases and clauses in the two languages can be seen by comparing the last sentence in the story with a translation NOTES Bomewhat as follows: The work kept on dll the afternoon and into the night hefore it was finished and the tracJc cleared, XXXVII.

Maiusaoillo is an important seaport on the West Coast at the terminus of one of the east and west trunk railway Unes.

The proximity of Colima, a volcano of f reakish temper, serves to relieve the monotony of lif e from time to time. These grammatical niceties of clauses of implied negation are lost in idiomatie modern English, and the phrase in the text may be properly translated, I wiah you had not arresten me, or I had rather not have heen arrested, Constitutions and "plans" have foUowed each other with be- wildering rapidity — all of them pattemed after that of the United States.

Pronunciamientos are a familiar figure in Mexican polities — rhetorical, platitudinous, bombastie. Unsophisticated statesmen of f oreign countries sometimes take these utterances for spontaneous uprisings of a people louging for liberty and good government. To the Mexican pelado the down-and-outer they are simply an invitation to loot and murder. Near at hand were horses with fine saddles, and gaudy uniforms with ornaments dear to the Mexican heart.

The men were offered their choice either to die then and there or to serve the government under a good salary, with trappings aforesaid — their duty being to rid the country of malef actors and act as protectora to NOTES honest folk. Given the alternative of o pan o plomo, they accepted the f ormer, and, on the principie that it takes a thief to catch a thief , proved to be a most efficicnt constabulary.

It is situated at some 5, feet, or about a mile, above sea level among the Sierra Madre Mountains on the plateau which occupies the greater part of the republic. It has a population of about ,, or about that of Albany, N. Its longitude is about that of Denver, Col. Its bulldings, rarely over two stories in height, are generally constructed of adobe sun dried brick of great thickness, with vigas beams of heavy wood for floors and roofs.

Se esperaba The volcano of Colima south of Guadalajara had been unusually active, and as the city had been shaken by earth- quakes in and in , the inhabitants were not whoUy unwarned of what might happen in As the tierras tem- pladas possess a climate of perpetual Spring — the kind the poets sing of, and not the Spring of the northeastern and northcentral States of this country — early rising is universal with all classes of people.

Atemajac, a cotton mili in the suburbs of Guadalajara. The mood of the dependent verb is determined by the underlying idea of cause in the principal verb. In more pretentious city residences los altos are the living rooms of the family, the ground floor being used perhaps in part as an office, store, or shop, for keeping a carriage or an auto, and for general storage.

The diminutive ending -uelo implies small- ness joined with a shade of contempt mitigated by jest or sympathy; as, thc little boy, the 4ot, the dear little fclloWf the sweet thing, XXXIX.

Aquel, used after its noun, is often employed in coUoquial expressions and implies a shade of contempt. The peso, or duro, was considered as divided into 2 tostones, 4 pesetas, 8 reales, or 16 medios. The real was equal to 2 medios, 4 cuartillas, or 8 tlacos. Milagiientos is cvidently a pun constructed from the words milagroso and mugriento, miraculous-dirty. The cooking is done over a movable brasero made of clay, about twelve inches high and wide.

Exeept in rainy weather, the braseros are set out in front of the door to avoid the fumes of charcoal which serves as fuel. Barranca: this enormous gorge of the Santiago Biver, a few miles east of Guadalajara, is a f avorite resort f or picnics and f estivals. In familiar conversation compadre is about equivalent to our Western "partner," 66, hizo correr la voz: spread the report, San Pedro: a pueblo a few miles east of Guadalajara.

Las autoridades supieron los bechos: saber means to possess Tcnowledge and occasionally, as here, to acquire Icnowledge, Un piquete de gendarmes is a convenient French phrase adopted into the Spanish language — un piquet de gens d'armes — and is reminiscent of the French occupation under the Emperor Mazi- milian in Informa is 3d sing. Sur: South Ninth Avenue. Bearing in. Sullivan, 3, which means primera [calle] Sullivan, or 7a.

Dirigirse: in formal directions the infinitivo is considered more impersonal than the imperativo or subjunctive. The rate of interest is 25 per cent for a period of five months, with deductions for a lesser period. If the loan is not repaid or renewed at the end of the stipulated time, the goods are sold at public auction remate.

It is often used as a storage warehouse for pianos, jeweiry, etc. As small a loan as possible is seeured. There is, however, the inconvenience that if the loan is not paid or renewed on the moment when due, the goods will be sold remorselessly under the hammer at auction — often a painful surprise to oblivious owners just returned f rom a long and happy viaje de recreo. At that interesting locality will be f ound a sort of perpetual fair, or open-air market, where one may buy almost anything at reasonable prices.

But, as often happens in this world, things are not what they seem. A man is seated on a petate a mat of woven palm leaves with an awning of the same material o ver him, supported by a few sticks. In a dirty serape blanket are a few collar s and cuffs. The sophisticated purchaser goes up and says he wants to buy a gold watch, cheap. Or, a gentleman, about to give a big dinner, discovers that he needs lialf a dozen champagne glasses.

Taking a sample to the guileless seller of linen or hardware, he orders six of that design for a certain day next week. They are forthcoming, perfect and at lialf price. As Sancho Panza said on a memorable occasion, Es mejor no meneallo [menearlo] It is hetter not to 8tir itup. Antes de Bucareli: formerly Jcnovm as Bucareli street. The present tense gives vividness in a deseription of a past event.

As Dr. Johnson said of the dog walking on its hind legs, it was not done well, but the marvel is that it was done at all. The Latin in tropical and semi-tropieal countries is not prone to violent, certaminous, outdoor sports, though it must be admitted that the Cubans have a very creditable record in the United States as ball players.

Occasion- ally one meets puzzling variations like yo pronounced as our word Joe, and caballo pronounced as cabasho or oabadjo. The Cubans have a habit of sliding over s that is distressing to students of Spanish. The Cas- tilian pronunciation is heard, however, on formal occasions, in the pulpit, on the stage, and in school exhibitions.

Elsewhere it is con- sidered affected and pedantic — very much as is the ''dictionary pro- nunciation" of half, calf, and laugh in the United States, outside of New England. Predietions are notoriously easy to make and difficult to refute, but it is probable that the Caribbean Sea will play the importaut part in the future development of civilization that the Mediterranean has in the past. Perhaps the most perplexing factor of the situation is the island of Hayti, a country lavishly endowed by nature but cursed with the most corrupt, inefficient, and degrading government of all the burlesque republics of Latin America.

Spanish authority ceased on the island on January Ist, From that date till May 20th, , the American government exercised control. A constitutional convention sat at Havana from November 5th, , till February 21, On the 20th of May, , the Cuban government assumed control. On July 28th, , however, a revolution broke out, and the United States inter- vened to restore order till January 28th, , when the government was again entrusted to the Cubans.

The American troops withdrew from the island on April Ist, It is about miles long. Ohiapas is the most southern of the Mezican states, next to the Guatemala boundary Une. The date of its completion is uncertain. At the time of this article it had reached the borders of Guatemala.

Goffee could thus be shipped via this road and that of the isthmus, and thence by water to New Orleans and the Atlantic seaboard. Tapachula is on the Pacific side at the extreme southern end of Chiapas. There is no river between the points named. About ten years later a f resh start was taken with the aid of foreign capital which introduced new machinery and centralization of organization. Que venimos pade- ciendo, which we have continued to sufer.

These fine points cannot be brought out in current, idiomatic English. The humidity is high and one's physical sensations of heat and cold often do not correspond to the readings of the thermometer. Los extranjeros is tautological unless considered as an appositive of los liijos del Norte. El Carnaval XLVIL 2. The appropriate climate is found in the hot, moist lowlands of the tropics.

There are many varieties in size, color, and flavor which unfortunately will not stand exportation. El tallo El fruto is the natural product of a tree, shrub, or plant that f ollows after the leaf and flower, while la fruta is the edible product of a tree, fruit, or shrub. Lo que ref ers to the statement already made, and may be translated, a fact that, 4. Huerta is a tract of land devoted to the cultivation of vege- tables, while huerto is devoted to fruit culture.

The essential oil of the rind of the orange is used in commerce in manufacturing perfumes and medicines. The oil of Neroli is obtained by distillation. From a saturated solution of the volatile oil of the flower comes the so-called orange flower water.

Curasao de Holanda is a liqueur made by the Dutch from a peculiar orange gr owing on their island GuraQoa lying off the coast of Venezuela. It owes its peculiar flavor to the dried peel of the orange. The full formula would require tanto to correspond to cuanto: by how much smaller, by so NOTES mxtch 7iicer. Aunque otra cosa se crea, when contrasted with the phrase a f ew Unes below, aunque estamos acostumbrados, will serve to show the eharacteristic distinction in the use of the subjunctive and indicative moods, the former being indefinite and vague, the latter quite the eontrary.

The Spanish phrase in this case is equivalent to a similar franchise. Students accustomed to the rigid syntactical order of English sen- tences are sometimes puzzled by the seeming cart-before-the-horse order in Spanish. With us, grammatical relations depend largely on position in the sentence; with the Spanish, relations are determined largely by inflections. In idiomatie English, we cannot hut feel alarmed, or we cannot help feeling alarmed. The logic of the Spanish idiom is mani- fest, but let the American student imagine the perplexity of the Spanish student in trying to fathom the logic of the English verb help in this eonnection.

Es necesario que Nos parece que, etc. In the Fahrenheit thermometer there are degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water; in the Centigrade there are degrees. There are two commonly used methods of tapping the rubber tree: the spiral system, whereby the juice runa down in one stream to the receptacle below, and the Y system in which the juice from the branching incisions joins a main channel at the bottom of which the juice is collected.

In the illustration shown on page , the Indian is apparently using the spiral system in a very primitive and wasteful manner. In addition to the methods of coagulation described in the article, a centrifugal machine, analogous to the familiar cream sep- arator used in American dairies, has been used with success with certain kinds of rubber.

The best American rubber comes from the Amazon valley and vicinity and is known botanically as Hevea Bra- sillensis. El rio de las amazonas was the uamc given the stream by geographers in memory of an ancient legendary tribe of female warriors described by Herodotus and Diodorus.

Pagar means to pay for, not merely to pay. El resumen local de valores: the local review of the atocle market. En esta plaza se hicieron acciones: this exchange, or market. Esto, hav- ing no corresponding adjective form, and not representing any noun but merely a phrase or idea, does not need an aeeent to distinguish it.

To the English -speaking mind there is not the slightest need for a negativo in the above perfectly idiomatic Spanish expression; but it is their language and if they f eel disposed to throw in an extra negativo now and then for good measure, as it were, whose business is itf Guatemala City in had a population of about ,, and although only about 15 degrees north of the equator, its altitude of about 5, ft. It is some- times called the Paris of Central America, but the Mexicans, between whom and the Guatemalans no lo ve is lost, sometimos cali the country Ouatepeor.

The music is generally of a high class, largely operatic, and is much appreciated by the people who love to sit outdoors in the cool of the evening. The occa- sion, in fact, is a social function. The different strata of society, in accordance with eustom, do not intermingle in the promenade around the band stand which takes place between every interval of music. Tegucigalpa, Honduras, a city of about 40, in- habitants in , is situated at an altitude of about ft. Tina Arcadia: the ancient inhabitants of Arcadia, a district of Greece, were shepherds and huntsmen, a simple, pastoral people fond of music and dancing.

Xn they achieved independence, and organized two years later to form the Republic of the United States of Central America. Returning to Costa Bica in , he seized the executive power, but was deposfid and shot.

Managua, Nicaragua, situated on Lake Managua, with a popu- lation in of about 35,, has modern flourishing industries with excellent lake and rail Communications. The financial and political record of the country has been cloudy. A modern, well paved, electric lighted, well-watered, well-policed city. As a make- shif t it is taken over into Spanish with a slight orthographical changa.

Army surgeons. It was found that the disease was carried by a certain kind of mosquito called the stegomyia fasciata. Vigorous measures for the extermination of mosquitoes were carried out, with the result that yellow fever was completely banished from Havana.

Foul and unhealthful quarters were cleaned up and disinfected, and measures of saneamiento on a par with those of the best cities of the United States were enforced.

So important was sanitary reform considered that it was adopted in the Cuban Constitution in Henee the agitation against cholera. The market is generally a large open building with stalls where a bewil- dering array of tropical products is displayed. Purchases are rarely completed without a long and animated regateo — a process of hag- gling on the price which seems to be enjoyed and expected by both parties.

Igual medida: igual is used much more freely than the English equal; it often means the same or similar, George E. Waring, Jr. He succeeded, but lost his life by yellow fever.

Se ha dispuesto que Oh pilluelo vagabundo! In many parts of Spanish America large country estates have attached to them a considerable population of laborers whose ancestors have lived there for many years and whose relation to the hacendado is almost feudal; virtually, not legally, that of vassals and lord.

The mozo, as a rule, on coming of age borrows from the proprietor as large a sum of money as he can — with no intention of paying it back. The arrangement is under- stood perfectly by both partios. The mozo receives henceforth his NOTES regular wages with no deductions f or money thus borrowed. The law forbids any debtor to leave without his creditor's consent.

This form of peonage may be terminated at any time by pay- ment of the original debt by the laborer or by some employer who wants his services. LVL Guerra v. This in a general way calis attention to money matters and in the case at hand might be translated as, Please remit. In view, however, of the obvious and quite justifiable asperity of the landlady in question, please will have to be considered as a purely superfluous anachronism. The translation of the phrase must vary according to time, place, and aecompanylng circumstances.

She begins operations by becoming unusually affectionate and dutiful; she brings the evening paper, arranges the chair and slippers, brings matches,, and compliments her father on his lovely neckties, etc.

Jaqueando a sus amigos. Cobro de los recibos implies a mutual assessment insurance and indicates a gratifying growth of civic solidarity. Whether Sr. Or he may have intended the advertisement as an appeal to his friends to get him out of jail. There is, however, a town Calabozo in Venezuela. Nezt in number come the Spaniards, especially from the North of Spain. In the Texas State Historical Association co-sponsored a conference, which brought together nearly one hundred leading scholars in the field of Mexican American Studies.

Mexican Americans in Texas History contains eleven essays from that conference and will be of great interest to students, scholars, teachers, and general readers, and it is well adapted to classroom use.

Census data to examine multiculturalism today and tomorrow in America. Another demographer, William H. Census Data. Chicano faculty and students in colleges and universities have increased, but much still remains to be done. Although funding for education is drastically being cut, Chicano and Latino students are at the front door of higher education, and the number of college-ready students is reaching significant levels across the nation.

The official designation of Hispanic-Serving Institution HSI , for schools with Chicano and Latino student enrollment in excess of 25 percent, has become a badge of honor among colleges and universities. Omar Valerio-Jimenez as the Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize winner. As the recipient of this award , Dr. In this, his first book, Dr.

Omar S. He has also contributed chapters on Hispanic topics to various anthology collections. Currently, he is working on a study of Latinos in early twentieth-century Iowa that explores acculturation, labor, and gender relations. Publishing companies were notified of the contest and based on certain criteria provided books for judging.

This year the judges were Dr. We thank them de todo corazon for their time and commitment to this project. Recognizing that not much has been written about Tejanos and their contributions to Texas and U.

She inspired and facilitated many Hispanics to research, study and preserve their ancestry. Over old maps and pictures, along with a review of years of historical records from various archives provide the reader with vivid eyewitness accounts of how the Alamo looked and evolved, together with the rich human history that has taken place there. Included in the book are six color birds-eye views by the author.

In the process, his personal life story becomes intertwined with native belief to create one serpentine tale, honoring the spiritual essence of the Americas, the Feathered Serpent. We are a native pueblo moving amongst our native lands! This is a story about God, a red native God, native to the Americas and yet the very same God worshipped throughout the world with different names. The watercolor and ink painting shows a southward moving people, dejected and looking down, with their belongings on their backs and in bags.

Repatriation of Mexicans living in the United States usually conjures images of the s in California during the Great Depression, and Rivera's painting illustrates that episode, of course. Still, it is a fitting graphic for the much less studied, and indeed much less known, repatriation of Mexicans living in the United States that occurred many decades before the Depression, during the aftermath of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the U.

This is timely, as debates continue to rage in the United States regarding immigration documented and undocumented of Mexicans. Historians and policymakers should have a solid background of this research on north-to-south migration to understand and appreciate the age-old Mexican American adage, "We didn't cross the border; the border crossed us. According to Article 11, the U. The author also drew heavily from secondary sources especially for chapters 1 and 2 , creating a monograph of mixed primary and printed sources, as any such study would do, to interpret this important part of Mexican American and borderlands history.

The author duly accomplishes that goal. Chapter 1 continues along this path, but adds a great deal of theory on colonization processes to the discussion. However, I would add that readers will very much appreciate the author's attention to providing a transnational approach to the topic that he defines quite well, and which is also spelled out theoretically, but clearly, here.

Meanwhile, Chapter 2 deals with expulsions, repatriation, and military colonization. Chapter 3 goes further to show postwar repatriation efforts that followed a "dominant nationalist discourse" p.

At this point, the author provides thorough discussion and analysis of the Federal Repatriation Commission, its mission, its and shortcomings. In fact, we learn--perhaps taking too long to get to this point, that "the vast majority of Nuevo Mexicanos ultimately chose to remain under a U. Labor issues arose at this point that are also well discussed in this chapter. For New Mexico, the La Mesilla part of the Gadsden Purchase country is the case study analyzed in chapter 5, with especially good discussion of push-pull factors affecting Mexican American migration patterns.

Here, there is also sound analysis of political implications affecting this population, as both Republicans and Democrats in New Mexico Territory at the time had differing approaches to dealing with Mexican Americans but with similar results. Chapters 6 and 7 deal more with more useful case studies of revolts and violence in the borderlands.

All of these matters are important in the history of Mexican American colonization in the borderlands. But at times, the book seems to get bogged down in jargon and dissertation-y theory, some of which should have been better edited by the press.

At the same time, the author seems compelled constantly to explain what he's doing. For example, he does not need to remind readers of his "analysis of heretofore unexamined archival documents" p. Nor does he have to add unnecessary signposting, such as "our analysis of the process of repatriation to Mexico begins with Such language gives the book an unfortunate mechanical flavor that interrupts otherwise very fine writing.

These examples also reflect an annoying inconsistency of first-person singular and first-person plural perspectives--again, oddly not edited out by the press when this is a clearly a single-author study. To the author's good credit, however, the chapter epigraphs are excellent--very well chosen and pertinent to each chapter, and I applaud the press for providing on-page footnotes a rare but delicious treat! Readers get a useful review of the three types of repatriation private, collective, and government- sponsored , and learn--perhaps a bit late for the book--of the overall significance of the study: an estimated 25 percent of Mexican Americans in these years returned to Mexico.

I sincerely hope so, too. Notes [1]. See specific wording of Article 11 that concerned DeLay on p. Citation: Sterling Evans. H-Borderlands, H-Net Reviews. December, Cambridge Cambridge Un Press, Dos de ellos fueron al mando de las naves y el tercero iba como Maestre. Fue armado Caballero el 8 de octubre de , en la Alhambra de Granada. Bordura con ancoras y corazones. En la provincia de Huelva hay 66 con el primero y 94 como segundo.

The oldest known genome of a modern human solves long-standing puzzles about the New World's genetic heritage By Ed Yong and Nature magazine. Paleolithic Remains: The 24,year-old remains of a young boy from Siberia reveal up to one-third of his genes come from European origin. The results show that people related to western Eurasians had spread further east than anyone had suspected, and lived in Siberia during the coldest parts of the last Ice Age.

This mixing, he says, created Native Americans — in the sense of the populations of both North and South America that predated — as we know them.

His team's results are published today in Nature. The team found that DNA from the boy's mitochondria — the energy-processing organelles of living cells — belonged to a lineage called haplogroup U, which is found in Europe and west Asia but not in east Asia, where his body was unearthed.

The result was so bizarre that Willerslev assumed that his sample had been contaminated with other genetic material, and put the project on hold for a year. Instead, it must reflect an ancient ancestry. The two groups mingled, and their descendants eventually traveled east into North America.

This new origin story helps to resolve several peculiarities in New World archeology. For example, ancient skulls found in both North and South America have features that do not resemble those of East Asians. They also carry the mitochondrial haplogroup X, which is related to western Eurasian lineages but not to east Asian ones. On the basis of these features, some scientists have suggested that Native Americans descended from Europeans who sailed west across the Atlantic.

These features make sense when you consider that Native Americans have some western Eurasian roots. The article was first published on November 20, Nature. A group of scientists says that what people observe in everyday life may depend on their genetic blueprint. A particular gene, known to play a part in emotional memories, could also influence where people tend to focus their eyes and attention. For instance, these people might look down a busy city street and catch the shady character hanging out by the ATM rather than the jubilant children playing in the park.

Or during a nature hike, they would focus on the slippery rocks instead of the breathtaking scenery. These, along with other emotionally charged memories, are stamped into the brain with the help of a chemical called norepinephrine.

The new findings hint that not only is the gene linked to more vivid emotional memories, but it may also make people more prone to noticing the negative in real time. Similar to how our genetic makeup can affect our individual taste for foods, our DNA — along with culture, experience, and environment — can influence our brain chemistry so that we observe and focus on different parts of the world than the person next to us.

Follow her adventures in motherhood and listen to her podcast storyyapping. This year the top 20 list has expanded to a top As you may remember from last year, most of the hundreds of people in my genealogy email address book share some of my ancestors. I know this because I have created genealogy ancestors books for them from my database of over , records.

A few years ago it occurred to me that these records could be used for another purpose. My idea is to use DNA testing, together with my database to learn more about my ancestors. Your test results reveal more than just your mtDNA makeup but also that of your mother and her mother and her mother etc. Genealogy records can be used to identify these mothers.

Let me use my mtDNA test results as an example. My mtDNA test results put me in haplogroup K2a8. Here are the haplogroups of by father, grandfather and great grandfather based on the test results of others and my genealogy research. Our top 30 groups are the result of mining my database for the 30 largest female mtDNA groups clones. My goal is to discover mtDNA test results for all 30 groups.

As of this update we have discovered These are our mtDNA groups see the table at the end of this report. I urge anyone who has tested with this company and has Mexican roots to join this project. The project accepts funds to pay for testing from anyone who is willing.

I am looking of people you can define the haplogroups that are unknown in our top 30 groups. Candidates should have a paper trail that follows mtDNA rules of heredity. We have funds to help pay for testing. There are additional funds for testing candidates sitting in my KIVA account.

Link to my Kiva. The first column labeled "Rank" is in descending order based on the "Clone Size" column. Clone size is the number of females in my records that share the same clone based on the rules of mtDNA descendancy. If you know of a female ancestor for any of they women please let me know. Since then it was brought to my attention that there is no evidence to support that. I descend from all of the women that are followed by an asterisk. The numbers after the asterisk denotes how many ways I descend from those women.

The "Spouse" column contains the names of the mtDNA ancestor's spouse. The "Descendants" column shows how many individuals I have in my records as descendants of the mtDNA ancestor. The "HG" column has the haplogroup name.

Highlighted rows have haplogroup results. The final column "Gens" is the number of generations I have in my records for the female descendants of the mtDNA ancestor. The bottom two rows contain my ancestors that do not rank in the top Corpus Christi, Texas, late s Do you recognized anyone in the photo? Henry lozano always made a special treat for us at the soda fountain. Garcia is standing on the right side, wearing a military jacket.

His arm rests on Vicente Lozano's shoulder. Gomez is standing is the center of the photo, in a dark suit and wearing glasses. The third man from the left was Gilbert Casares. Tim Olivares says that he was Dr. Hector's right-hand man. Grace Charles, Grace. Charles tamucc. Jumping next to your Dad on his left I believe him to be Louis Wilmot. Remember your Dad by was graduating from the university and then goes to Omaha, and then WWll.

He looks awfully young in the picture. I am going to check another collection and maybe pin point the others. The second email I received came from a …. An artist Tkacz Gregoire spent time in Corpus Christi Texas and painted portraits of prominent citizens. Gregoire was a Ukrainian from Canada and traveled throughout the United States painting pictures of prominent citizens.

Among the most memorable was the painting of John F. Lili Co would like to have any information about the artist and the painting. My dear Ms. Contreras, I contacted the son on the web site, but asked only for general information. I will also post a copy of your letter on Somos Primos and perhaps some of the readers will respond with more information. If you could send me a photograph of your painting, it would be helpful. Good luck with your project and if I may be of further services, please let me know.

Warmest regards, Wanda. Se lo agradezco infinitamente. Por eso le agradezco tanto su ayuda y su respuesta. El cuadro mide 16x Her eyes were drawn to a photograph of her Abuelita, her grandmother.

Marge was but six years old when her Abuelita Altagracia Gonzalez had died. I wish I'd known you better. Marge was exploring the website of Linda Castanon-Long. Linda had transcribed thousands of entries of Zacatecas families from FamilySearch microfilm. Marge is quick to give credit.

Grandma's spirit? More than likely. Our ancestors want us to find them and they want us to know them. Thanks, Marge, for sharing your story and the beautiful portrait of your grandmother. On a Saturday night in December , Marge Vallazza walked past her spinet piano whereon were various family photos.

Marge Vallazza grgrands gmail. Escamilla lived her with mother, stepfather and two young sisters in Houston before moving to Fulshear in the early s. When her mother became very ill when Escamilla was almost 10, the little girl was taken to live with her biological father in Runge, where she was raised with nine siblings. Growing up, Escamilla's daughter, Otilia Gonzalez, remembers her mother talking about her half-sisters, but no one ever pushed the subject.

When Gonzalez was older, she started spending more time with her mother and was able to garner pieces about Escamilla's childhood. That was the only time she got her education; four years of education. The determined daughter's research suffered setbacks along the way in the form of work, illnesses and deaths within the family.

Gonzalez retired a few years ago and found more time to devote to her mother's plight. She joined two genealogy organizations. The woman lived in Fulshear as a retired postal worker. She said the names of Escamilla's sisters didn't ring a bell but she would do some digging. The woman was born in Palito-Blanco and grew up in Premont. She just happened to be good friends with Gonzalez's husband's family and was able to get Gonzalez's number.

The lady was able to give Gonzalez the long-lost sisters' phone number, setting off a whirlwind of activity. After almost a century apart, Gonzalez wanted to make sure she had found the right people to bring to her mother.

That's how we were sure they were my mother's long-lost sisters. Gonzalez broke the news to her mother that all their hard work had finally paid off. The three sisters texted pictures back and forth before the inevitable reunion. They scheduled the event for as soon as possible, because Escamilla couldn't sleep, afraid she was going to die before reuniting with her siblings.

Sisters Sara and Elida Gonzalez now live in Brookshire, only miles from Fulshear and eagerly awaited their older sister's arrival. The woman swarmed Escamilla's vehicle. Family members filmed the emotional reunion and are now filling the days writing down details and trying to catch up on 78 years worth of memories. The newly reunited family will once again be gathering around the holidays in Runge for a more extensive family reunion. As we try to encourage our young people to learn to read and write in Spanish, they can learn to program their computers and I-phone to write those accented letters.

Than they can teach Granpa and Grandma how to type the words Spanish when they write those special birthdays, get well or congratulation emails. For all PCs: There are several key combinations you can use to insert single characters into your text on a PC. The first is for newer computers using the Control key and may only work in Microsoft Office. To type the numbers, you must use the numeric keypad on the right side of your keyboard, not the number keys on the top row.

Sadler November 24, - December 24, One of the dearest men, I have ever met. Today is the saddest day of my life. The love of my life passed away early this morning! I woke up this morning around 4 am because his snoring was loud and different. My call to brought in the police, the fire department paramedics and the ambulance. The trip to Anaheim Memorial was quick because of hardly any traffic.

The doctor and staff worked on him, but he never woke up. Yesterday was a very routine day for us. Getting ready for family to visit on Christmas Day, we have the ham and all the other fixings. He was looking forward to seeing Cynthia and that beautiful grandson Nicolas. Please say a prayer for him. He was the kindest, most unselfish man in my entire life. He and Viola attended the first organizing meeting held in Anaheim.

Through out the years, Viola and Charles have both contributed on an going basis in many capacities. It was a new concept and I knew nothing about how to do it, but Charles did.

He volunteered to set up the website and then helped maintain it. I particularly remember that Charles and Viola compiled a huge pedigree chart on paper. It was at least 12 feet in length and 4 feet in height.

I loved viewing the chart. It went back to the earliest American colonial period, showing all English lines on the top and all Spanish lines on the bottom, joined through the marriage of Charles Sadler and Viola Rodriguez. On one occassion, Charles and Viola let me borrow their chart. I tacked it to the wall where the meeting was held. People viewed the chart with amazement.

Most did not think we, of Spanish heritage, could actually research our family history. After all. Thank you Charles. You have been a blessing to all those fortunate enough to have known you. Charles taught math for over 35 years, with most of his career at Loara High School in Anaheim. In the 70s, he pioneered the computer programming curriculum at Loara High School, and mentored his students in the burgeoning field of computer science.

Known for his strict punctuality, he was always available to help students before and after school. He was an amateur radio operator for many years in Texas and later in California. He had a life long interest in genealogy and was able to connect with many of his cousins and relatives across the US. Charles was a devoted parent, volunteer and cheerleader for Special Olympics events and activities. Although he never admitted to being a gardener, he developed a passion for nurturing his pepper plants and cherimoya tree.

He liked almost every genre of music. He loved to attend all types of concerts in the Southland. Sadler, of Austin, TX.

Yorba ST. Family Tree is a new program has been built within Family Search. With Family Search we can search for our family records. With Family Tree we can find people and family relationships others have identified, and we can add them to our family tree. These are all free programs, but we must sign in to our account, so others family members can contact us with helpful information.

If you allow your account to make public your Email address. Many new filters have been added to FamilySearch making search results more accurate. Family Tree actually searches for you family member, if you press Search or Possible Duplicate.

Searching and Sourcing proves that you are right and leads you to find other family members. Websites for searching, training and historical information will be given as a handout. ORG use this URL to search our film data base, and decide if you want any of the courses offered at the center for finding your family. The consultants in the FSL are willing to help during regular hours.

He remembers as a child sitting quietly next to his father, artist Emigdio Vasquez, while he painted the piece. He sees the faces depicted in the artwork and remembers his old friends and family from the Cypress Street Barrio where he grew up.

The mural has served for decades as an iconic symbol in the working-class Latino neighborhood in Old Towne. It's been described as everything from a historic piece of local art to a call to arms for area gang members. And after years of neglect, the year-old mural has been crumbling to pieces.

Entire sections have peeled and flaked off because of water damage. Other sections have cracked through the stucco base. Vasquez, 45, in October began working to restore the artwork painted by his father in The project began after Chapman University bought the apartment complex where the mural was painted on the block of North Cypress Street, which holds a mix of residences and businesses.

On one side, it shows a brief history of Mexican American culture, from an Aztec warrior to early Mexican immigrant farmers and laborers to labor leader Cesar Chavez.

On the second wall, the mural shows images of daily life on Cypress Street from the s through the s. Emigdio Vasquez, now 75, used people from the neighborhood as models.

The panel shows guys in zoot suits, a souped-up car and neighborhood homes and storefronts. In , the city and the Orange County District Attorney's Office issued an injunction targeting a gang based in the neighborhood. In the injunction, authorities said the gang used the mural, where accused gangsters gathered, to promote its lifestyle.

School officials have not yet decided what they will do with the rest of the property, whether it will be converted into housing for students or staff, turned into office space or set aside for another use. Higgy Vasquez sometimes brings his dad to the site to show him the progress. Surely the most monumental, most important new beginnings for me was.

My sense of responsibility enlarged, from myself to my son. Being a mother was not in any sense feared. I knew it was a huge responsibility, but I welcomed it. My attitudes were also greatly shaped over the years by family attitudes towards having children. Dad raised rabbits for food and we also had a goat which was purchased, so that I would have goat milk for health purposes.

The goat was pregnant and had two little kids, which we saw give birth, dad helping. Dad named her Lollipop because that was the first thing that he gave her to eat and she liked it. He seemed to know when Lollipop was going to go into labor. He had built her a her a dog house ready , with soft clean rags. It seemed like almost twice a year. We could not seem to keep the males away. However, we never had a problem finding homes for the puppies. As lollipop got a little older she did seem to lose interest in taking care of her puppies, and sometimes we had to hold her down to let the puppies suckle.

So, my feelings about pregnancy and delivering were all based on my lively Tias and Lollipop, who was with us from 3rd grade to high school.

I met and married my husband in graduate school at UCLA. Our son was born a couple of months before our second anniversary, in October of We were living in vets housing at UCLA. We should not have been given permission to rent. It was a requirement to have children. I was in my 8th month. We were lucky, they made an exception. I pretty much expected that my child would be born naturally and happily.

With everyone in the units having at least one child, I got lots of advice from lots of people. I was told, not to wash windows, or carry heavy loads, not to eat spicy foods, and if I started getting contractions, before I rushed to the hospital to make sure it was not a false alarm. The muscles, practicing for the labor that was ahead, would stop contracting, if you walked.

Frequently, in the day, or at night, I would take a walk, while my husband, Win studied. I realize now they may have thought I might go into labor, by myself, and kindly walked with me. I surely did not fear giving delivery. Her eyes got big, and she stuttered and said that meant labor was starting.

Win had already left for class. I was calm, but those around me did not seem to be. The moon was in its new cycle. One of the nurses explained that they they are frequently over-burdened during the new moon cycle, The floor and delivery rooms were full. Some beds of pregnant women were in the hallway. Perhaps, if I had 50 years of television watching behind me, with babies being born in Taxi-cabs, I would not have been so calm.

When my husband returned from class, he found out that I had gone into labor and rushed to join me. Finally, a delivery room was available. Win arrived before I was taken into the delivery room. I had not had any medication, but the whiff worked.

I was out. In one hand my son, Aury, held a scalpel, and both doctors were trying to wrestle it away from him. Oh no, I thought, by baby is going to cut himself, or them. It happened so unexpectedly. Apparently the doctor completing an episiotomie, had put the scalpel in his shirt pocket.

Fortunately, they succeeded. The only blood spilled that day, was mine. Aury cried and then responded with a pout. Day 2, at home, My second birth experience was with my daughter. Now, being a second delivery, I knew what to expect, but it was different, with its own complications.

It is clear too why labor, is called labor, because it is hard work. We would often gather for little socials. Discussion on psychic ability and hypnosis was a frequent topic in our building, and an area of special interest to me. In the end of my third trimester of pregnancy, I was told about a hypnosis study being conducted by UCLA physicians studying the effectiveness of post-hypnosis suggestion in childbirth.

They needed volunteers. I volunteered, and was accepted. Participation consisted of a weekly sessions held in a small UCLA hospital room. We were expected to arrive at a specified time, not speak to other participants, take off our shoes, and lie down quietly on one of the cots, close our eyes and relax. The session started, when the doctor tiptoed over to the tape recorder and turned the message on.

The doctor purposely did not interact with us during these session. The concept and strategy was based on the premise that the participants could not be dependent on the doctor. It was not a study on hypnosis, it was a study on facilitating the birthing process by self-hypnosis. The post-hypnotic suggestions were relaxing, calming and positive, reassuring that all would be fine with both labor and the delivery.

The recorded messages taught me how to to breathe to relax my body, with an alert mind to absorb the message. As participants in the study, we were told, when we went into labor, to go to UCLA, and the hospital staff would page the doctor.

The only difficulty and discomfort with the whole involvement took place when I was at UCLA ready to deliver. I was fine, but the conflict was among the medical staff. I lay comfortably on my side as directed my physician. Suddenly, the attending nurse rudely took away a pillow that I was using between my legs, saying it was not good.

I was a bit surprised and distracted myself. I sat up leaning over to one side, reading a magazine while the contractions grew stronger and stronger. I could hear the screams of some of the poor women, screaming for for relief. I felt sorry that they had not been involved in the hypnosis study with me.

The attending nurse herself was quite pregnant, and I wondered how she must be feeling, hearing the screams and wondering how she will react when her time comes. It was June 10th and my husband was taking his final exam. He had dropped me off and rushed off to take it. The substituting physician, with anti-hypnosis sentiment, made his sentiments quite clear to the staff. It is ridiculous. When she starts hollering you give her whatever she needs. Unfortunately, my physician doing the hypnosis study had not yet arrived.

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