Search metadata Search text contents Search TV news captions Search radio transcripts Search archived web sites Advanced Search. Mount Independence, with Fort Putnam on its summit, is the background of the West Point plateau. Other well known hills are in this broken range, where Arnold, the traitor, conferred with Andre, the spy, and is more intimately identified with the military history of the country than any other mountain region. Reed Smith’s funds finance team sits within our Financial Industry Group that contains more than lawyers who provide dedicated multi-jurisdictional services to clients in the financial sector focusing on finance, funds and investment management, regulatory, tax, litigation and commercial restructuring and bankruptcy.
Related videosAuctioneers - DO THIS when the bidding has stalled
This was on the east side of the river. Below the Highlands on the west side the natives were of a different disposition, and shot arrows at the crew from points of land. For this they were punished by Hudson's men, who returned their fire and killed about a dozen of them. Hudson's journal says that above the Highlands "they found a very loving people and very old men, and were well used.
At this point many more Indians boarded the ship, and did a brisk business in exchanging skins for knives and ornamental trifles. At several anchorages the Indians brought green corn to Hudson's ship, and it was one of the agreeable surprises of the crew at their meals. Corn was generally cultivated by the Hudson River tribes, and grew luxuriantly. Ruttenber says it was long supposed to be native, but investigation shows it was transplanted from a foreign shore.
It is certain that the early explorers knew nothing of it until it was brought to them by the Indians, and that it had been cultivated by the latter from immemorial times.
Hudson wrote that some of the Indians whom he met along the river wore mantles of feathers and good furs, and that women came to the ship with hemp, having red copper tobacco pipes and copper neck ornaments.
Verrazano, who sailed along the North American coast 33 years after Hudson's expedition, said the Indians were dressed out in feathers of birds of various colors. He mentioned "two kings" who came aboard his ship in Narragansett Bay as "more beautiful in stature than can possibly be described," and characterized them as types of their race. One wore a deerskin around his body artificially wrought in damask colors. His hair was tied back in knots, and around his neck was a chain with stones of different colors.
The natives who accompanied the chiefs were of middle stature, broad across the breast, strong in the arms and well formed. A little later Roger Williams was welcomed as a friend by an old chief, Canonnieus, and his nephew, and he described the Indians who accompanied them as of larger size than the whites, with tawny complexions, sharp faces, black hair, and mild, pleasant expressions.
The women were graceful and beautiful, with fine countenances, and of modest appearance and manner. They wore no clothing, except ornamental deer skins, like those of the men, but some had rich lynx skins on their arms, and various ornaments on their heads composed of braids of hair which hung upon their breasts.
These Indians were generous in their disposition, "giving away whatever they had. Later the Indians were classed from language into two general divisions—the Algonquins and the Iroquois—terms given them by the Jesuit missionaries.
Lawrence River. Several tribes in the west Hudson River counties constituted the Lenni-Lenape nation, which held its council fires on the site of Philadelphia. Some of their names were Waoranecks, Haverstroos, Minisinks and Waranawonkongs. When Hudson came the Lenapes were the head of the Algonquin nations, but wars with the Iroquois and the whites so weakened them that they became the subjects of the Iroquois confederacy for eighty years previous to Then they rebelled, allied themselves with other tribes, became the head of the western nations and successfully contested nearly all the territory west of the Mississippi.
During the period of their subservience they were known as the Delawares. The Mohawks were the most eastern nation of the Iroquois, and were called Maquas by the Dutch, and a branch on the Delaware, Minquas. The Iroquois, first known as the Five Nations, later received the Tuscaroras of North Carolina, who removed to New York, and with the Cherokees and other southern Indians became the sixth nation of that great Indian confederacy, to which they also were related by language.
Both the Algonquin and Iroquois confederacies were divided into tribes and sub-tribes of families, each with a head who was the father or founder. These combined for mutual defense and the heads elected one of their number chief sachem, regarding themselves as a nation to make laws, negotiate treaties, and engage in wars, the wars being mostly between the Algonquins and Iroquois.
The Esopus Indians occupied parts of Orange and Ulster Counties, and their war dances were held on the Dans Kamer, a high promontory north of Newburgh.
Their rule extended to other families east and west of the Hudson, but their territory cannot be clearly defined. Regarding Indian character, there have been presented by our historians some contrasting but not wholly irreconcilable views. Ruttenber, in his valuable contribution to the History of Ulster County, edited by Hon.
Clearwater, says:. They were still in the age of stone, but entering upon the age of iron. Their implements were mainly of stone and flint and bone, yet they had learned the art of making copper pipes and ornaments. This would rank their civilization about with that of the Germans in the days of Tacitus about the year A. They had, unaided by the civilization of Europe, made great progress.
They were savages or barbarians, as you may please to call them, men who wrote their vengeance in many scenes of blood, the recital of which around the firesides of the pioneers became more terrifying by repetition; nevertheless they were representatives of a race whose civilization, though it was years behind our own, had no faults greater than were found in the races from which we boast our lineage.
In Samuel Eager's "History of Orange County," published in , are found statements presenting a different conception of Indian qualities.
It says:. If you know one you know the general character of those who compose his wigwam, and knowing this you know that of his tribe. They are all alike—dirty, slothful and indolent, trustworthy and confiding in their friendships, while fierce and revengeful under other circumstances.
Their good will and enmity are alike easily purchased. All have the war dance before starting upon and after returning from the warpath, and bury the dead standing, with their instruments. Their known rule of warfare is an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and children, and they are cruel to their captives, whom they usually slay with the tomahawk or burn up at the stake.
They believe in a future state of rewards and punishments, and sacrifice to a Good Spirit—an unknown god. We have the testimony of Hendrick Hudson that the Indians above the Highlands were kind and friendly to him and his crew, and the more so the further they proceeded up the river. This, we presume, related to those on both sides of the river, though below the Highlands they were of a more hostile character.
We have understood, as coming from the early settlers, who first located in Westchester and Dutchess and afterwards removed here, as many of them did, that the impression was very general that the Indians on that side of the river were less hostile and more friendly to the white settlers than those on the west; and this was given as a reason for settling there, which accounts in some measure for the earlier settlement of that side of the river.
We infer, from the absence of written accounts of anything very peculiar or different in the habits and customs of the Indians of the county from others in the State, and from the poverty of tradition in this respect that there were no such peculiar differences, but they were similar and identical with those of the heathen Indians at Onondaga and Buffalo before modified and changed by white association. These somewhat contradictory views of the Indian race seem to be a little too sweeping on both sides, they being neither so good nor so bad as represented.
The native Indians have been both kind and cruel to one another and the whites. Their instincts are not unlike those of civilized peoples, but there are less control and restraint in savagery than civilization. Their tribal differences of conduct towards the whites depended less upon natural disposition than leadership and provocations.
Vindictiveness towards real or fancied enemies seems to have prevailed everywhere among the North American tribes, and this was undoubtedly increased towards the whites by the latter's aggressions and by the former's indulgence in the intoxicants furnished them by their white neighbors.
But cruelty is ingrained in the barbarian character almost everywhere, and often is manifested in communities called civilized. The tortures of the middle ages in the name of religion were as painful as those inflicted in the eighteenth century by our Indians, and both seem almost impossible to the philanthropist of to-day.
Not until minds have been softened by such teachings as those of the Founder of Christianity, and extremes of bigotry have given place to tolerance and charity, is the natural disposition of the average man to give pain to antagonists dissipated. There has been no more intellectual nation among the aborigines of America than the Senecas of Western New York—the most original and determined of the confederated Iroquois—but its warriors were cruel like the others, and their squaws often assisted the men in torturing their captives.
When Boyd and Parker were captured in the Genesee Valley in the Sullivan campaign of , Brant, the famous half-breed chief, assured them that they would not be injured, yet left them in the hands of Little Beard, another chief, to do with as he would, and the prolonged tortures to which he and his savage companions subjected them were horrible. After they had been stripped and tied to trees, and tomahawks were thrown so as to just graze their heads, Parker was unintentionally hit so that his head was severed from his body, but Boyd was made to suffer lingering miseries.
His ears were cut off, his mouth enlarged with knives and his severed nose thrust into it, pieces of flesh were cut from his shoulders and other parts of his body, an incision was made in his abdomen and an intestine fastened to the tree, when he was scourged to make him move around it, and finally as he neared death, was decapitated, and his head raised on a pole.
Similar tortures were not uncommon among both the Iroquois and Algonquins when they made captives of the whites. Returning to the Lenni-Lenape of the Hudson River's western lands, there is in Eager's history an account by a Delaware Indian of the reception and welcome by the Indians of the first Europeans who came to their country—on York Island—which is here condensed. Some Indians out fishing at a place where the sea widens saw something remarkably large floating on the water at a great distance, which caused much wondering speculation among them.
The sight caused great excitement, and as it approached news was sent to scattered chiefs. They fancied that it was a great house in which the Mannitto Great Spirit was coming to visit them.
Meat for sacrifices and victuals were prepared. Conjurors were set to work, and runners were sent out. The latter soon reported that it was a great house full of human beings. When it came near it stopped, and a canoe came from it containing men, one elegantly dressed in red. This man saluted them with a friendly countenance, and, lost in admiration, the Indians returned his salute.
They saw that he glittered with gold lace and had a white skin. He poured something from a gourd into a cup, drank from it, filled it again, and handed it to a chief. It is passed around, and the chiefs smell of it, but do not drink.
At last a resolute chief jumps up and harangues the others, saying that they ought to drink, as the Mannitto had done, and he would dare to drink, although it might kill him, as it was better that one man should be destroyed than that a whole nation should die.
Then he drank, soon began to stagger, and finally fell to the ground. He fell asleep, and his companions thinking that he was dead, began to bemoan his fate. But he awoke, and declared that he had never before felt so happy as when he drank from the white man's cup. He asked for more, which was given him, and the whole assembly imitated him and became intoxicated.
After they became sober they were given presents of beads, axes, hoes and stockings. Then the Dutch made them understand that they would not stay, but would come again in a year, bring more presents, and would then want a little land. They returned the next season, began cultivating the grounds and kept bargaining for more land until the Indians began to believe that they would soon want all the country.
The scenes thus described by the Delaware Indian were probably soon after the voyage of discovery by Hendrick Hudson. The Esopus Indians, according to early records, represented four sub-tribes—the Amangaricken, Kettyspowy, Mahon and Katatawis. In their chief deeded a large tract of land lying along the Hudson in Ulster and Orange Counties and extending back to the Rochester hills, to the English Government.
The tract cannot be clearly defined. Previous negotiations and fighting led to this transfer. In Wildwijk Kingston , where an infant colony had been started, was set on fire, and the colonists were attacked and murdered in their homes with axes, tomahawks and guns.
They finally rallied and drove the Indians away, but not until twenty-five of them had been killed and forty-five made prisoners. The New Village, as it was called, was annihilated, and of the Old Village twelve houses were burned.
When Peter Stuyvesant heard of the calamity he sent a company of soldiers from New Amsterdam to assist the settlers. They were commanded by Captain Martin Kregier, arrived at Wildwijk July 4, and a few days afterward Kregier had a conference with five Mohawk and Mohican chiefs who came from Fort Orange. He induced them to release some of their captives, but his negotiations with the Warranawonkongs were less successful. They were the proprietors of lands in the vicinity of Newburgh, and for some distance above and below the Lenni-Lenape confederacy.
They would not agree to terms of peace unless the Dutch would pay for the land called the Groot Plat or Great Plot and add presents within ten days. Kregier would not agree to this, and on July 25th followed them to their castle. They abandoned it, and fled to the Shawangunk Mountains, taking their captives with them. They were followed, and again retreated.
Kregier burned their palisaded castle, cut down their cornfields and destroyed about a hundred pits full of corn and beans which were a part of the harvest of the previous year.
Then Kregier returned to Wildwijk and guarded the settlers while they harvested their grain. He resumed offensive operations in September, sending out about fifty men to reduce a new castle which the Indians were building "about four hours beyond the one burned. Thirteen Indians were taken prisoners and twenty-three Dutch captives released. The Indians fled to the mountains, the uncompleted fort was destroyed, and the soldiers carried away much spoil.
Another force was sent to the same place October 1st, when the Indians retreated southward, and the Dutch completed the work of destruction, including crops and wigwams around the fort. Later the Indians solicited peace and an armistice was granted. They had suffered severely, and felt crushed, and their allies, the Waoranecks, were also subdued, although their territory had not been invaded. The ratification of the treaty was celebrated, and thus was closed the struggle of the Indians for the possession of their lands on the western slope of the Hudson from the Catskills to the ocean.
The Minsis remained in the western part of Orange and some adjoining territory, and in and were strengthened by additions of large colonies of Shawanoes.
For nearly a hundred years after the treaty there was but little trouble between the Indians and the settlers of Orange County. The incursions during the French and Indian and the Revolutionary Wars properly belong to the military chapter of this history.
There is a tradition, supported by some evidence, that the first settlement of Orange County was in the old Minisink territory along the Delaware River. Although the supposed settlement was mostly in Pennsylvania, the reported excavations, roads and other work of the settlers were mostly in Orange County.
The story of the tradition, and evidence that it has a basis of fact, are given in a letter by Samuel Preston, Esq. Eager's county history of , and reproduced in Charles E. Stickney's history of the Minisink region of Eager says the letter "will throw light upon the point of early settlement in the Minisink country," and Stickney assumes that its second-hand statements are substantially true.
But Ruttenber and Clark's more complete history of the county, published in , discredits them. The essential parts of Preston's letter are here condensed. He was deputed by John Lukens, surveyor general, to go into Northampton County on his first surveying tour, and received from him, by way of instruction, a narrative respecting the settlements of Minisink on the Delaware above the Kittany and Blue Mountain.
This stated that John Lukens and Nicholas Scull—the latter a famous surveyor, and the former his apprentice—were sent to the Minisink region in for the government of Philadelphia; that the Minisink flats were then all settled by Hollanders; that they found there a grove of apple trees much larger than any near Philadelphia, and that they came to the conclusion that the first settlement of Hollanders in Minisink was many years older than William Penn's charter.
Samuel Depuis, who was living there, told them that there was a good road to Esopus, near Kingston, about a hundred miles from the Mine holes, which was called the Mine road. Preston was charged by Lukens to learn more particulars about this Mine road, and obtained some from Nicholas Depuis, son of Samuel, who was living in great affluence in a spacious stone house. He had known the Mine road well, and before a boat channel was opened to Foul Rift, used to drive on it several times every winter with loads of wheat and cider to buy salt and other necessaries, as did also his neighbors.
He repeated stories without dates that he had heard from older people. They said that in some former age a company of miners came there from Holland; that they worked two mines, and were very rich; that they built the Mine road with great labor, and hauled their ore over it; that they bought the improvements of the native Indians, the most of whom moved to the Susquehanna.
In Preston began to build a house in the Minisink and obtained more evidence from Gen. James Clinton, the father of Gov. They both knew the Mine holes and the Mine road, and were of the opinion that they were worked while New York belonged to Holland, which was previous to Preston did not learn what kind of ore the mines produced, but concluded that it was silver.
He went to the Paaquarry Mine holes, and found the mouths caved full and overgrown with bushes, but giving evidence of a great deal of labor done there in some former time. Ruttenber and Clark's history, as stated, discredit the tradition regarding the early settlement of the Minisink by Hollanders, as accepted by Clinton, Tappan, Depuis, Preston and others.
It represents the Mine road to be simply an enlargement of an old Indian trail, and the mines to have been of copper and located in what is now the town of Warren, Sussex County, N.
It says that the Dutch at Esopus during the war of had little knowledge of the country, even east of the Shawangunk, and that if the Minisink was penetrated at a much earlier period it was by way of the Delaware River. The historian discusses the subject further, and concludes that the first settler of the Minisink was William Tietsort, a blacksmith from Schenectady, who barely escaped the slaughter at that place in , and went to the Minisink country from Esopus, by invitation of friendly Indians, and purchased lands of them in October, But Stickney, after recapitulating the traditions and evidence of the early settlement of the region, says: "Here generations lived the fleeting span of life in blissful ignorance of any outer or happier world beside, and were alike unknown outside the boundaries of their own domain until some wanderer chanced to come across their settlement, and went on his way, thereafter to remember with gratitude and envy the affluence and comfort that marked their rough but happy homes.
If Tietsort was the first white settler of the Minisink, Arent Schuyler was probably the second, as he settled there in , having been granted a patent of 1, acres of its lands by Governor Fletcher. The governor had sent him there three years before to ascertain whether the French in Canada had been trying to bribe the Indians to engage in a war of extermination against the New Yorkers from their fastnesses in the Shawangunk Mountains.
The earliest land transfers and titles were so thoroughly investigated by Ruttenber and Clark that we cannot do better, perhaps, than condense mostly from their history.
Warranawonkong chiefs transferred to Governor Stuyvesant the Groot Plat or Great Plot, as it was called, in which Kingston is now situated. These lands are said to be the first for which Europeans received a title from the Indians, and are somewhat indefinitely described in the treaty with them of to which reference has been made.
They were conquered by Captain Kreiger in , and embraced three townships in southwestern Ulster. Chronology next takes us to the extreme south of Orange County. On the presumption that they were included in the boundaries of New Jersey, the Harts soon transferred them to Nicholas Depues and Peter Jacobs Marius, and purchased another tract north of them in , which was bounded by the Hudson River on the east and the mountains on the south.
This became the property of Jacobs. They also purchased a tract north of the previous purchase, and including a part of it, which was called Abequerenoy, and passed from them to Hendrick Ryker. On the north a Huguenot, Louis Du Bois, with some friends who had been driven from France by religious persecution, located first at Esopus in ; and in September, , after purchase from the Indians, twelve of them became patentees of a tract of 36, acres lying north of the Redonte Creek, as the Warranawonkong was then called.
Between Haverstraw and New Paltz Patrick Mac Gregorie, David Fosbruck, his brother-in-law, and twenty-five others, who were mostly Scotch Presbyterians, occupied lands at the mouth of the Waoraneck, and Mac Gregorie purchased for them 4, acres on both sides of Murderer's Creek, on which they settled. Mac Gregorie built his cabin on Plum Point, then called Conwanham's Hill, and the cabins of his associates were in the vicinity, and on the south side of the creek David Toshuck, the brother-in-law, who subscribed himself "Laird of Minivard," established a trading post.
Stickney thinks the year was , but it was probably a little earlier, as about that time Mac Gregorie entered into the military service of the State without perfecting his patent, mistakenly trusting Governor Dongan to protect his interests, who, in , obtained from three Indian owners their title to a tract extending from New Paltz along the Hudson to Murderer's Kill, thence westward to the foot of the high hills, and thence southwesterly along the hills and the river Peakadasank to a pond; and the same year added by deed from several Indians another large tract of the land called Haverstraw.
These lands included a part of those which the Indians had previously sold to Mac Gregorie, and others which they had sold to Stephanus Van Cortlandt. The latter had preserved his deed, and succeeded in obtaining a patent attaching them to his manor across the river. Mac Gregorie was killed in the Leslie revolution of Governor Dongan sold his two purchases to John Evans in , and the latter then proceeded to dispossess Mac Gregorie's widow and her family of their home, when he granted only leases to them and the other Scotch settlers.
After some years, however, the Mac Gregorie heirs, in consideration of their original claim, obtained a patent of the Plum Point farm and a mountain tract. The fourth and largest settlement was made adjoining "the Christian patented lands of Haverstraw" by emigrants from Holland, mostly of the Reformed Dutch Church. They were granted a township patent in March, , under the name of the town of Orange. There were sixteen trustees of this grant, which began at the mouth of the Tappan Creek, extended north to Greenbush, and thence easterly and southerly back to Tappan Creek.
The center of the township was Tappan, where a church was organized. A vast tract of land immediately west of Haverstraw was conveyed to Daniel Honan and Michael Hawdon, January 25, Adjoining this on the south were certain tracts containing 2, acres which were granted to Samuel Bayard. The Indian deed for this and other purchases was covered by Lucas Tenhoven and embraced , acres, for which no patent was issued. Ruttenber and Clark's history states that the indicated foregoing patents covered the entire district from the New Jersey line to New Paltz and west to the line of the Shawangunk Mountains.
Here is the proper place for some statements made by David Barclay in his paper on Balmville read before the Newburgh Historical Society in He said that Captain John Evans in obtained from Colonel Fletcher, then Governor of New York, a patent for a tract of land on the west shore of the Hudson, extending from Stony Point to the south line of New Paltz, and westward to the Shawangunk Mountains, including two-thirds of Orange County and parts of Ulster and Rockland Counties, and estimated to contain , acres.
The only settlement thereon at that time was that of Major Gregorie's heirs and followers at Murderer's Creek in the present towns of Cornwall and New Windsor.
The patent was afterward annulled by an act of the assembly, which was confirmed, and the title reverted to the crown. Included in these lands must have been those unjustly transferred to Evans in by Governor Dongan "under the title of the lordship of the manor of Fletcherdom. Three of them, to associations, were issued at the following dates: Chesekook, December 30, ; Wawayanda, March 5, ; Minisink, August 28, The Chesekook patent was included in a purchase from five Indian proprietors to Dr.
There is no record that the purchasers received a deed from the Indians, and it was reported, probably correctly, that when Depuis obtained the Minisink lands from the Indians, he got them drunk and never paid them the money agreed upon—treatment which they resented for a long time afterward in hostility to the white settlers. The Chesekook patent was bounded north by the patent line of Evans, west by Highland Hills, south by Honan and Hawdon's patent, and east by "the lands of the bounds of Haverstraw and the Hudson.
The Wawayanda patent was bounded eastward by "the high hills of the Highlands" and the Evans patent, north by the division line of the counties of Orange and Ulster, westward by "the high hills eastward of Minisink" and south by the division line of New York and New Jersey.
The boundary lines of the three patents were defined in such general terms that for a long time they caused trouble as to titles, and in the final adjustment the territory claimed by the Wawayanda patentees was cut off, while on the west a tract called the Minisink angle, embracing , acres, was formed.
The English government began investigating the patents of such immense tracts in , and the next year caused the Evans patent to be annulled, after which the territory covered by it was conveyed in small tracts issued at different times up to These conveyances, exclusive of those outside of the present county, were as follows:. Only a small part of the Minisink patent was in the present county of Orange, but the Wawayanda and Chesekook patents were wholly within its limits, and covered its most fertile sections.
The Wawayanda patent caused much trouble, and was unoccupied by settlers until , when the surviving shareholders—Christopher Denne, Daniel Cromeline and Benjamin Aske—determined to make settlements thereon, and to facilitate their ends were made justices of the peace.
Parties were sent out by each of them, and these began the settlements of Goshen, Warwick and Chester, where houses were soon completed and occupied. The agent who preceded Denne into the wilderness was his adopted daughter, Sarah Wells, then only 16 years old, who was accompanied only by friendly Indian guides. She married William Bull, the builder of Cromeline's house, and lived to the great age of years and 15 days. Recorded sales to settlers and others prior to , as well as to Everett and Clowes, were as follows:.
By these conveyances Everett and Clowes came into possession of lands equaling four of the thirteen parts, and, as required by the terms of their deeds, laid out the township of Goshen in , dividing it into farms and opening roads, and assigned acres of land for the support of a minister. The most prolonged and bitter contest of titles was between settlers of Orange County, mostly in the original Minisink region, and settlers of Northern New Jersey.
This was continued for sixty-seven years with occasional border frays. The dispute had reference to the boundary line between New York and New Jersey. The northern line as described in this grant extended from "the northwardmost branch" of the Delaware River, "which is in latitude 41 degrees 40 minutes and crosseth over thence in a straight line to the latitude 41 degrees on Hudson's River.
In the Dutch reconquered New York from the English, but on February 9, , in a treaty of peace between the two nations, it was restored to England. Sir Carteret immediately took the precaution to have a new patent made out, which defined the boundaries in about the same general terms as before. Then came controversies as to which should be called "the northwardmost branch" of the Delaware. This difference made the disputed triangular territory several miles wide at the west end.
Under the New Jersey government the land was parceled out in tracts to various persons, and when these came to take possession the men who had settled upon them long before, resolutely maintained their claims. In the border war that resulted numbers of the Minisink people were captured and confined in New Jersey prisons.
The first series of engagements resulted from efforts to obtain possession of the lands of a Mr. Swartwout, who was a major in the militia of Orange County. He went to Goshen for help, and a formidable company returning back with him, they in turn put the New Jersey occupants and their goods out of the house, and restored it to the major. Then a spy was employed to watch the Jerseymen, and through the information which he continually furnished, their future operations were generally frustrated.
About the "Jersey lines" made another attempt upon the major and his possessions, but they were anticipated and driven or frightened back, no one, however, being killed. In a Jersey raid was made to get possession of the lands of Thomas De Key, colonel of the Orange County militia and a justice of the peace. He tried to negotiate with them, and induce them to wait until the boundary question was determined, but they refused, and he then barricaded himself in his house, and threatened to shoot the first man who tried to enter, and they finally retired vowing that they would bring a larger force.
The last important raid was in , on a Sunday, when the Jerseymen came in considerable force resolved to capture Major and Captain Westbrook. They surrounded the church where the Westbrooks were worshiping, and when the service was over there was a fight, amid the screams and sobs of women, with fists and feet, in which the Jerseymen, being the more numerous, conquered and captured the Westbrooks.
They were confined in the Jersey colony prison awhile, and then released. In hostilities were suspended, and commissioners were appointed to run a boundary line, and soon afterward the territory was surveyed, and about equally divided between the claimants, and peace thenceforth was established between the two sections. In , when the county was organized, it did not contain more than twenty families.
In a first census was ordered by Governor Bellmont, and it showed the population to consist of 20 men, 31 women, children and 19 negro slaves. In the population had increased to 63,; in , it was 88,; in , ,; and according to the last census of , our population was , Orange County is unsurpassed by any other in the Empire State in variety of surface features and picturesque beauty of scenery.
It has mountain ranges and extended ridges, streams with wide and narrow valleys, and is dotted with lakes and ponds. Along the mountain lines are a few lofty peaks, and there are many isolated hills and rocky precipices. Parts of its boundaries are the Hudson River on the northeast, the Delaware and Mongaup Rivers on the west, and the Shawangunk Kill on the northwest. Near the center the Wallkill winds along its rich valley into Ulster County, and thence into the Hudson. Its principal tributary on the northwest is Rutgers Creek—which also has several tributaries—and others are Monhagen Creek, Mechanicstown Creek and Shawangunk Kill.
On the southwest it gathers in the waters of Warwick Creek—which is swollen by smaller streams in its course—and also Quaker, Rio Grande, and Tin Brook Creeks. The Otter Kill flows easterly from Chester into the Hudson. The course of the Ramapo is southerly from Round Pond in Monroe to Rockland County, and it is fed by several other ponds. Other streams, large and small, are numerous. The central portion of the county consists of rolling uplands broken by deep valleys.
The most prominent of the mountain ranges are the Highlands along its eastern border. Their loftiest peak, Butter Hill, is 1, feet high, precipitous on the river side, and sloping on the north.
Another name given to it is Storm King, because clouds occasionally gather there from different directions and concentrate in storms of rain and lightning. Bare Mountain is next, with a height of 1, feet. Other well known hills are in this broken range, where Arnold, the traitor, conferred with Andre, the spy, and is more intimately identified with the military history of the country than any other mountain region.
It has been written of Butter Hill and Cro'-nest that "they have a charm which might induce a man to live in their shadow for no other purpose than to have them always before him, day and night, to study their ever-changing beauty.
The Shawangunk Mountains are a spur of the Alleghenies stretching northeast across the western angle of the county. They are less broken than the Highlands, and not so high as the Catskills, but of the same general formation. The western side is precipitous, but the eastern is sloping, and some of its lands are very fertile, producing sweet grasses from which much of the famous Orange County butter has been made.
The peaks rise from 1, to 1, feet above tide water. This range was the original dividing line between the Wawayanda and Chesekook patents. The Schunnemunk range is on the dividing line of the towns of Monroe and Blooming Grove and a part of that of Blooming Grove and Cornwall.
An accepted descriptive phrase for the range is, "the high hills west of the Highlands. To the southwest, in the town of Warwick, are the Bellvale Mountains, and south of these the Sterling Mountains. Several other mountainous elevations in Warwick and Woodbury punctuate this part of the county and also the border country on the west.
Valleys connect mountains and hills. That of the Delaware River, along the border of Deer Park, is narrow and irregular, being much broken by tributaries and mountains. The most of the cultivated lands of Deer Park are along the Neversink valley. The valley of the Wallkill is wide, fertile and beautiful its bottom lands are among the best in the State, and its farmers are prosperous and thrifty. Wide flats, gradual slopes and steep declivities give variety of soil and scenery to the Otterkill valley, and much of its scenery is charming.
The same may be said of its tributary, Cromeline Creek. One cannot travel far in Orange County in most directions without coming upon a lake or a pond, and there are dozens of them in the southeastern section. These feed its many streams, and when Eager wrote his history he said there was not one town in the county that had not water power to some extent.
Beginning in the northern part of the Highlands in Cornwall the lake-and-pond system extends through the towns of Highland and Monroe to Greenwood Lake, thence west and north to Big Meadow Pond in the Highlands.
Greenwood Lake, in Warwick, is the largest body of water in the county. It is about nine miles long and one wide, is partly in New Jersey, and is a feeder for the Morris Canal. Sutherland's Pond, half a mile long, southeast from Cro'-nest Mountain, has an outlet which runs into Murderer's Creek. Big Meadow Pond, in Highlands, covers about acres, and its outlet pours over the rocks of Buttermilk Falls.
The waters of Round Pond flow into Long Pond under a natural bridge about 80 feet wide, but the stream is lost sight of until it emerges on the other side. This is similar to the outlet of Washington Lake in New Windsor, which emerges at Trout-hole and there becomes a fall of forty feet.
Sterling Lake, at the beginning of the Warwick series, covers about sixty acres, and in iron works were established at its outlet. Round Pond, in Wawayanda, is in shape what its name implies, has no visible outlet, its water is clear, pure and deep, and it is about a mile in circumference.
Thompson's Pond, in the northwestern part of Warwick, covers about acres, feeds Quaker's Creek, and this outlet furnishes power for mills.
Orange Lake, in Newburgh, covers about acres. But all the lakes and ponds of Orange are too many to be named. They are almost as interesting a feature of the county as its streams.
Orange County is richer in alluviums than any other in the State, as they cover about 40, acres. The "Drowned Lands," as they were formerly called, include about forty square miles, and are partly in New Jersey, but mostly in New York, extending in Orange from Cheeunk Outlet in Goshen through Wawayanda and Minisink to the New Jersey line, and covering about 17, acres. They contain a number of fertile islands, and thousands of acres of the waste lands have been recovered by means of an artificial outlet, which, at first a mere ditch, has been deepened and widened by the flowing water until the principal flow is through it.
These recovered lands are rich and productive. They are belted by the Wallkill and three creeks, and the Wallkill's course through them is long because so crooked. The Gray Court meadows extend from near Craigville in Blooming Grove into the northern part of Chester, and embrace about acres, which are nearly all under cultivation and very productive.
They are drained by Cromeline Creek. Long Swamp, in Warwick, also contains about 1, acres, and is drained into New Jersey. Great Pine Swamp extends northward from Howells on the Erie railroad seven miles in the town of Wallkill, and embraces many oases and cultivated farms. There are several other scattered areas of swamp lands. In the marl and peat beds in several localities many bones of the extinct mastodon have been found, including two complete skeletons.
One of the latter was taken from a bed near Coldenham in , and weighed 1, pounds, and the other from a bed in the town of Mt. Hope, and weighed 1, pounds. The topography of the county has been changed somewhat by its railroads, of which there are miles, not including double trackage or trolley roads.
The following places in towns extending across the county have each direct railroad communication north, east, south and west: Port Jervis, Middletown, Campbell Hall, Goshen, Chester and Newburgh. The wagon roads are numerous, generally good, and are charming arteries for carriages and automobiles. The geology of Orange County is as varied as its topography. Along the eastern feet of the Shawangunk Mountains are Heidelberg limestones, gray and Medina sandstones, shales and grits, and the mountain rocks are mostly sandstones, shales and grits.
The grits extend along the top of the range through the county and are from 60 to feet thick. Heidelberg limestone extends from the Mamakating valley to the Delaware River. Grit and red rocks are on the west side of Greenwood Lake, and grit of various colors extends from Round Hill to Woodcock Mountain, and is also found in the southwest base of the Schunnemunk range and in Pine Hill.
Grawacke is the rock on the southeast side of the Bellvale range in Warwick, and is found in the town of Blooming Grove in the Schunnemunk range. The Hudson River group occupies a large part of the surface of the county, and consists of slates, shales, grits, limestones, breccias and conglomerates.
It is stratified with grawacke and grawacke slate. Hope and Minisink. Dark Utica slate is found on the banks of the Hudson near Newburgh. Trenton limestone appears in Hamptonburgh near Mount Lookout, and this mountain is composed of Black River limestone, which is also found on Big Island in the Drowned Lands and in Minisink.
There is a bed of blue limestone about a mile wide extending from the Hudson at Hampton southeasterly through Newburgh into New Windsor. Slate rocks of the Taconic system are above Newburgh, and its limestone between the Highlands and Grove Pond Mountain. Its white limestone appears in Warwick, where it is in narrow ridges separated by other rocks. It is also found along the shore of the Drowned Lands at Amity, and near Fort Montgomery in the Highlands, from which it may be traced by way of Little Pond across the Ramapo.
In some localities it is so white as to be translucent. Many different minerals are found in it. The primary rocks of the county consist of gneiss, hornblende, granite, sienite, limestone, serpentine, angite and trappeau. They extend over parts of several towns, and several mountains and hills are composed of them.
Quartz rock and hornblende are all along the Highlands and in Monroe and Warwick. Crystalline serpentine is in the white limestone in Warwick, serpolite at Amity, yellow garnet at Edenville, soapstone in Monroe.
Large sheets of mica are found southwest of the Forshee iron mine in Monroe, and in this mine, which embraces an entire hill, are red garnet, brown tremoline, carbonate of copper, serpentine, cocolite and umber. In the O'Neil mine, half a mile northeast of the Forshee mine, are crystallized magnetic ore, magnetic and copper pyrites, carbonate of copper, serpentine, amianthus, asbestos, brown and rhombic spars, angite, cocolite, feldspar and mica.
There are beds of arsenical and titanium ores in Warwick and a bed of hemolite ore near Canterbury village. Magnetic oxide of iron abounds in the primitive rocks of the Highlands, and at West Point is associated with hornblende. Beds of lead have been opened at Edenville and in the towns of Mt. Hope and Deer Park, and zinc and copper ores have been found in small quantities.
The Sterling iron bed in Monroe, which was opened in , extends over about thirty acres, and has produced so strong an ore that it has been much used in the manufacture of cannon. There are a number of other iron mines. Searches for the traditional silver, gold, lead and tin mines have been without satisfactory results. Many evidences of glacial action in Orange County include masses of boulders scattered in places throughout the county.
These are mostly of granite and gneiss, and there is occasionally one of grawacke. The eastern slope of the Shawangunk Mountains gives evidence of the passage there of an enormous glacier, which ground the rocks into the rich soil that has been cultivated there for years. Some of the county's drift deposits are valuable for casting, brick and pottery making, lithographic stones and glass. The soil of the semicircular plateau from the Highlands of the Hudson to the Dans Kamer is mostly a mixture of gravel, sand and clay, which form a warm and fertile loam.
That of the wide Wallkill valley is alluvium mixed with clay, sand and gravel and is easily worked and richly productive. So is the soil brought down from the hills in the town of Deer Park.
The lands on the islands of the Drowned Lands are among the richest in the county. The alluvium of the Otterkill is a sandy and gravelly loam. In other sections of the county there is an alternating variety of soils, rich, medium and poor.
Until after the conquest of New York by the English in Holland methods of government, with a local government for each town, prevailed. The next year the English introduced courts and sheriffs.
In Thomas Dongan was appointed governor, with directions to organize a council of not more than ten "eminent inhabitants," and issue writs for the election by freeholders of a general assembly, the members of which should consult with the governor and his council as to what laws were necessary for the good government of the province.
The first meeting of the first general assembly was in New York in , and it passed fourteen acts, which were assented to by the governor and his council.
Except Orange, to be in the care of New York, and Ulster, to be in the care of Dutchess, the counties were to be entitled to representation in future general assemblies. Another act established town courts to be held for the trial of minor cases each month; county courts and courts of sessions, to be held quarterly or half-yearly; a general court of oyer and terminer, with original and appellate power, to be held twice a year in each county; and a court of chancery, or supreme court, composed of the governor and his council, for which the governor was empowered to deputize a chancellor to act in his place.
This was the system of administering justice eight years. In an act was passed requiring justices of the peace in each county to meet once a year at a Court of Sessions, to examine and allow necessary charges against the county and its towns.
There were supervisors, assessors and collectors in each town from the first, and in the freeholders of each town were empowered to choose three surveyors to lay out and look after highways and fences, and also to ordain laws and rules for the improvement of village, pasturage and other lands. For many years previous to Orange County shared in serious corruptions and frauds which were prevalent in the province. The Assembly which convened in was so turbulent and brought so much confusion into its councils that Governor Bellomont, who succeeded Governor Fletcher that year, dissolved it and ordered a new election, taking care that the untrustworthy sheriffs of his predecessor were retired from the management.
Protests were made to the King, but without avail. The Governor had been clothed with power to correct abuses, to veto any law, and "to adjourn, prorogue and dissolve the Assembly. It nullified grants to large tracts of lands, regulated election methods, and provided punishments for frauds. Unfortunately Governor Bellomont died in , before some of his plans could be carried into effect, and Lord Cornbury was appointed as his successor, and acquired the distinction of being "the worst of all the Governors under the English crown.
The Assembly refused grants of money which he asked for, and asserted the rights of the people, declaring that they could not "be justly divested of their property without their consent. The first sessions of the Court of Common Pleas and of justices of the peace as a Board of Supervisors were held in Orangetown in April, The court justices were William Merritt and John Merritt.
Orange and Ulster County people were then required to do their surrogate business in New York. This was continued until , when the Court of Common Pleas of the county was empowered to take proof of wills and grant letters of administration. The Court of Common Pleas was an institution of the county until , when the County Court was substituted. The Supreme Court began holding sessions in Orange in , and was succeeded by Circuit Courts established under the Constitution of , as these were by the judicial system of , consisting of a Supreme Court, Circuit Court, and Court of Oyer and Terminer.
Surrogate's Courts were not established until In the original county was divided into two court districts, and the sessions were held alternately in Orangetown and Goshen, the former being the shire town. Not until was Goshen made the shire town, when the sessions alternated between Goshen and Newburgh, an arrangement which still continues.
The first public buildings for the original county were constructed at Orangetown in In a building of wood and stone for court house and jail was erected in Goshen, at a cost of pounds, and was torn down about The old Orange court-house had been replaced by a new structure in , and some years afterward was destroyed by fire.
The Goshen building came into the present county when it was reorganized under the Act of It was two stories high, with a court-room on the second floor, and on the first a sheriff's office and dwelling, and a dungeon for prisoners.
During the Revolution Tories and war prisoners were confined in it, one of them being John Hett Smith, arrested for complicity in Arnold's treason, and who managed to escape. A third story was added to this building about , and on the new floor were a main jail room, a dungeon with one grated window which could be completely darkened, and three other rooms for the county clerk, surrogate and jailer respectively.
Above were a cupola and bell. The latter structure has been completely remodeled lately, and is now a fine, up-to-date building. The county clerk's office in Goshen—a one-story brick building—was constructed in In a building for the insane was added, which is 30 by 50 feet, and in a separate building for colored people was erected.
The farm has been increased to acres, of which are tillable, and has been provided with the requisite outbuildings. In the section of Orange County taken from Ulster the first two companies of militia were organized before The regiment to which they were attached consisted of nine companies, located as follows: Kingston 3, Marbletown 1, Wallkill 1, Hurley 1, Rochester 1, New Paltz 1, Highlands 1.
The regimental officers were: Colonel, A. Elmendorf; quartermaster, Cornelius Elmendorf. The following lists give the names of the officers and privates in the territory which is now a part of Orange County:. First Company: Captain, Ram. Remsen; lieutenant, Cornelius Smith; ensign, Ebenezer Smith. Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, sixty-three private men. In all, Three sergeants, three corporals, one drummer, fifty-eight private men.
The official census of give the population of New York at 4,, The estimated population on January 1, , is 4,, Official returns for give Philadelphia a population of 1,, The estimated population for Jan. Official statistics for give Boston a population of , Official returns for give Baltimore a population of , The estimated population of Brooklyn as a borough of greater New York is given on Jan.
Official statistics for give Chicago a population of 1,, Official statistics for give St. Louis a population of , The estimated population on Jan. III Const. Commonwealth Bryce Vol. Railroad Co. Tennessee, U. Reports , Clark v.
Barnard U. State 73 Cal. See Cooler's Constitutional Limitations, chapter ii, also Louisiana v. Jumel U. Reports, p. History of the Church, Vol. III, p. See this Volume, p. The prayer of Dedication will be found at pp. Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. Ibid , verse The quotations in the above are from "Catholic Belief," by Bruno, D. I, et seq. See History of the Church, Vol.
II, p. Also Doc. See Doc. And Cov. James 1, Friday, July 5, I always dictate all my communications, but employ a scribe to write them. Sunday, 7. Elder John E. After noon the meeting was again opened by prayer. Elder John Taylor spoke on the subject of this dispensation; the other angel which John saw, having the everlasting Gospel to preach, he then bore testimony of the truth of the Book of Mormon.
Elder Woodruff's address went chiefly to exhortation to the Saints; after which he also bore his testimony. Elder Orson Hyde next came forward, and having alluded to his own late fall, [ 3 ] exhorted all to perseverance in the things of God, expressed himself one with his brethren, and bore testimony to his knowledge of the truth, and the misery of falling from it.
Elder Brigham Young made some very appropriate remarks, and also bore testimony to the truth of these things, and gave an invitation to come forward and be baptized, when three manifested their determination to renounce the world and take upon themselves the name of Jesus Christ. One brother was then confirmed; after which President Sidney Rigdon addressed the meeting in a very feeling manner.
He showed that it must be no small matter which could induce men to leave their families and their homes to travel over all the earth amidst persecutions and trials, such as always followed the preaching of this Gospel.
The meeting was large and respectable; a great number were present who did not belong to the Church. The most perfect order prevailed throughout. The meeting was dismissed about half-past five, when we repaired to the water, and the three candidates were baptized and confirmed.
Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, 8th, 9th and 10th of July. About this time much sickness began to manifest itself among the brethren, as well as among the inhabitants of the place, so that this week and the following were generally spent in visiting the sick and administering to them; some had faith enough and were healed; others had not. Sunday, Monday and Tuesday, 22nd and 23rd.
Sunday Elder Parley P. Pratt preached on the gathering of Israel. In the afternoon Orson Pratt addressed the Church on the necessity of keeping the commandments of God. All this week chiefly spent among the sick, who in general are gaining strength, and recovering health. Sunday, August 4. I exhorted the Church at length, concerning the necessity of being righteous, and clean at heart before the Lord. Many others also spoke; especially some of the Twelve, who were present, professed their willingness to proceed on their mission to Europe, without either purse or scrip.
The Sacrament was administered; a spirit of humility and harmony prevailed, and the Church passed a resolution that the Twelve proceed on their mission as soon as possible, and that the Saints provide for their families during their absence. Letter to Isaac Russell, reproving him for issuing pretended revelations to the Saints. L, 10th and 11th verses. Friday, 9. Greene presiding. The New York and Brooklyn branches were represented by the President as being in good fellowship.
The Sacrament was administered. Orson Pratt preached upon the order and plan of creation. Three were baptized. This week I spent chiefly among the sick. The Church made a purchase of eighty acres from William White for four thousand dollars, lying directly north of the Hugh White purchase. Thursday, Pratt and family, Orson Pratt and Hiram Clark, started on their mission to England, in their own two-horse carriage—their route lying through Illinois, Indiana, and to Detroit, the capital of Michigan, situated near the head of Lake Erie, about five hundred and eighty miles distant.
Saturday, Elder Richards went to the Staffordshire potteries this day, and Presidents Joseph Fielding and William Clayton were visiting and setting in order many of the branches, and ordaining many to the ministry who are diligent in preaching as they have opportunity on the Sabbath in the surrounding villages. Sunday, September 1. Pratt's writings. This week sickness much decreased. Monday, 9 , and the greater part of the week. Dear Brother Galland:—We have had the great pleasure of receiving your favor of the 24th July; and learning thereby that you and your family had arrived at Chillicothe in safety and in health.
We perceive that you have had a rather narrow escape from a serious accident; and doubtless the hand of the Lord is to be acknowledged in the matter, although unperceived by mortal eye. Time and experience will teach us more and more how easily falsehood gains credence with mankind in general, rather than the truth; but especially in taking into consideration the plan of salvation. The plain simple order of the Gospel of Jesus Christ never has been discerned or acknowledged as the truth, except by a few—among whom were "not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble;" whilst the majority have contented themselves with their own private opinions, or have adopted those of others, according to their address, their philosophy, their formula, their policy, or their fineness may have attracted their attention, or pleased their taste.
But, sir, of all the other criterions whereby we may judge of the vanity of these things, one will be always found true, namely, that we will always find such characters glorying in their own wisdom and their own works; whilst the humble Saint gives all the glory to God the Father, and to His Son Jesus Christ, whose yoke is easy and whose burden is light, and who told His disciples that unless they became like little children they could not enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
As to the situation of the Church here, matters go with us as well as can reasonably be expected; we have had considerable sickness amongst us, but very few deaths; and as the greater part are now recovering we yet hope to have shelters provided before the winter shall set in. Since you left here, we have purchased out all Mr.
Hotchkiss' interest hereabouts. His farm we have laid out as an addition to our town, Nauvoo, and the town of Commerce we also hope to build up. Some of the Twelve and others have already started for Europe, and the remainder of that mission we expect will go now in a few days.
According to intelligence received since you left, the work of the Lord rolls on in a very pleasing manner, both in this and in the old country. In England many hundreds have of late been added to our numbers; but so, even so, it must be, for "Ephraim he hath mixed himself among the people.
There has quite a number of families gathered up here already; and we anticipate a continuance, especially as upon inquiry we have found that we have not had more than [the usual] ratio of sickness here, notwithstanding the trials we have had, and the hardships to which we have been exposed.
Calculating as we do, upon the mercy and power of God in our behalf, we hope to persevere on in every good and useful work, even unto the end, that when we come to be tried in the balance we may not be found wanting. With all good wishes and prayers for the temporal and eternal salvation of yourself and your family, as well as of all the honest in heart over the face of the earth,. His health was very poor; he was unable to go thirty rods to the river without assistance. After he had crossed the ferry he got Brother Israel Barlow to carry him on his horse behind him to Heber C.
Kimball's where he remained sick until the 18th. He left his wife sick with a babe only ten days old, and all his children sick, unable to wait upon each other. I returned home this evening. Wednesday, Elders Young and Kimball left Sister Kimball and all her children sick, except little Heber; [ 7 ] went thirteen miles on their journey towards England, and were left at Brother Osmon M. They were so feeble as to be unable to carry their trunks into the house without the assistance of Sister Duel, who received them kindly, prepared a bed for them to lie on, and made them a cup of tea.
Brother Duel carried Elders Young and Kimball in his wagon to Lima, sixteen miles, where another brother received them and carried them to Father Mikesell's near Quincy, about twenty miles; the fatigue of this day was too much for their feeble health; they were prostrated, and obliged to tarry a few days to recruit.
Friday and Saturday, 20 and Elders George A. Smith, Reuben Hedlock, and Theodore Turley started for England, and upset their wagon on the bank of the river, before they got out of sight of Commerce. Elders Smith and Turley were so weak they could not get up, and Brother Hedlock had to lift them in again. Soon after, some gentlemen met them and asked who had been robbing the burying ground—so miserable was their appearance through sickness.
After others had spoken I spoke and explained concerning the uselessness of preaching to the world about great judgments, but rather to preach the simple Gospel. Explained concerning the coming of the Son of Man; also that it is a false idea that the Saints will escape all the judgments, whilst the wicked suffer; for all flesh is subject to suffer, and "the righteous shall hardly escape;" still many of the Saints will escape, for the just shall live by faith; yet many of the righteous shall fall a prey to disease, to pestilence, etc.
So that it is an unhallowed principle to say that such and such have transgressed because they have been preyed upon by disease or death, for all flesh is subject to death; and the Savior has said, "Judge not, lest ye be judged.
Monday, Murray's, Sister Kimball's father. Saturday, 5. The meeting was opened by prayer by President Joseph Smith, Jun. The President then spoke at some length upon the situation of the Church; the difficulties they have had to contend with; and the manner in which they had been led to this place; and wanted to know the views of the brethren, whether they wished to appoint this a stake of Zion or not; stating that he believed it to be a good place, and suited for the Saints.
It was then unanimously agreed upon that it should be appointed a stake and a place of gathering for the Saints. Harris, Samuel Bent, Henry G. Wilson, to be the High Council; who being respectfully called upon accepted their appointment. Burk, Abraham O. Don C. Orson Hyde to stand in his former office, [an Apostle] and William Smith to be continued in his standing, [in the quorum of the Twelve. Letters were then read respecting the absence of members on account of ill health. It was voted that Harlow Redfield be suspended until he can have a trial; and in the meantime that he should not act as president of a branch, or preach.
Voted that Ephraim Owen's confession for disobeying the Word of Wisdom be accepted. Allred, George W. Hovey, Robert D. Foster, Fields B. Simmons, William W. Edwards, Sen. Edwards, Jun. Allred, Eli Lee, Hiram W. Mikesell and Thomas S.
Edwards were appointed Elders of the Church, who all accepted of their appointment, with the exception of Thomas S. John Gaylord was admitted into the Church upon his confession. Abel Casto was confirmed by the laying on of hands. The meeting then adjourned until Sunday morning; after which six were baptized by Joseph Smith, Jun. The assembly was very large. The conference met on Sunday morning, the 6th, pursuant to adjournment at eight o'clock a.
After some remarks from the President respecting order, and decorum during conference, Elder Lyman Wight spoke concerning the duties of Priests and Teachers. President Joseph Smith, Jun. Having now got through the business matters, the President proceeded to give instruction to the Elders respecting preaching the Gospel, and pressed upon them the necessity of getting the Spirit, so that they might preach with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; to be careful in speaking on those subjects which are not clearly pointed out in the word of God, which lead to speculation and strife.
Those persons who had been baptized, were then confirmed, and several children received blessings by Elders Cutler, Bent, and Brunson. Elder Lyman Wight then addressed the meeting on the subject of raising funds by contribution, towards paying for the lands which had been contracted for as a settlement for the Church, after which contributions were received for that purpose.
Elder Lyman Wight spoke on the subject of the resurrection, and other important subjects; when he offered the following resolution, which passed unanimously;. Resolved: That a new edition of Hymn Books be printed immediately, and that the one published by D.
Rogers be utterly discarded by the Church. Elder Ezra Hayes was then put upon trial for teaching doctrine injurious to the Church, and for falsehoods, which were proven against him; his license was taken from him, and he required to give satisfaction to those whom he had offended. Charges having been preferred against Brother Rogers, it was agreed that the case be handed over to the High Council. Asahel Perry made application to be received into fellowship, and was voted into his former standing.
After having referred the business not gone into, to the High Council, the President then returned thanks to the conference for their good attention and liberality, and having blessed them in the name of the Lord, the conference was dismissed. Tuesday, 8. Friday, Smith, Hedlock, and Turley started from Springfield, traveled eight miles on their journey, and stayed with Father Draper.
He was in his seventy-seventh year, and a soldier of the Revolution. He was driven from Missouri with the Saints in the latter part of last year. He died a martyr to the religion of Jesus, for his death was caused by his sufferings in the cruel persecution.
The assembly was small on account of the cold weather. Tuesday, Fullmer, and Bishop Knight. Quite a number of families moving into Commerce. In the evening Doctor Modisett went down to see the brethren, and appeared to be very much affected to see them so sick, and having to lie upon the floor on a straw bed that had been put into the wagon at Springfield, by the brethren, for Elder Young to lie on, as he was not able to sit up when he left there.
When the doctor returned home, he told Elders Young and Kimball, he could not refrain from shedding tears to see the brethren going upon such a long mission, and in such suffering circumstances. Elders Young and Kimball said they thought the doctor might have relieved them from "their suffering and indigent circumstances upon their long mission," for he told them in the course of the evening, that his taxes in that place amounted to over four hundred dollars, besides having other property to a great amount.
In the evening Doctor Modisett gave Elder Kimball about forty drops of morphine, saying it would relieve him of his distress, and probably he would get a nap. Council organized according to number. The members of the High Council elected at the October conference, met and organized at W.
Huntington's, where Harlow Redfield was restored to fellowship; and voted that this High Council disfellowship any and all persons that shall hereafter carry over or ferry across the river, any people or freight to the injury of said ferry from Commerce to Montrose. Voted that the Horse Boat be repaired from the moneys received on sale of lots in Nauvoo, and that D. Davis be master of said ferry boat for the ensuing year.
Voted that Joseph Smith, Jun. Voted , that this Council disfellowship any and all persons who shall knowingly suffer and allow any animal subject to their control to destroy the crops, fruit, or plants of the earth belonging to any other person or persons, and to their injury, and that this resolution be published in the Times and Seasons.
Sherwood should set the price upon, exhibit, contract and sell town lots in Nauvoo, when needed, and report his doings to Presidents Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, for their approval, and that five hundred dollars be the average price of lots, i.
Davis have thirty dollars per month for his services as ferryman; and that these proceedings be published in the Times and Seasons. Elder Almon Babbitt was preaching in that region with good success; he had baptized five. King Follett, the last of the brethren in bonds in Missouri, had his trial and was set free some time previous to this day. The High Council of Nauvoo voted that the Clerk's fees of James Mulholland be thirty dollars per month; that the treasurer pay Vinson Knight one hundred and fifty dollars, for the Iowa side of the ferry at Montrose as per charter.
Voted , that the recommends drawn by Elder Sherwood, recommending, constituting, and appointing Joseph Smith, Jun. III, pp. After being confined to his house several days, and while meditating upon his situation, he had a great desire to attend to the duties of his office.
On the morning of the 22nd of July, , he arose from his bed and commenced to administer to the sick in his own house and door-yard, and he commanded them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to arise and be made whole; and the sick were healed upon every side of him.
Among the number was Henry G. Sherwood, who was nigh unto death. Joseph stood in the door of his tent and commanded him in the name of Jesus Christ to arise and come out of his tent, and he obeyed him and was healed.
Brother Benjamin Brown and his family also lay sick, the former appearing to be in a dying condition. Joseph healed them in the name of the Lord.
After healing all that lay sick upon the bank of the river as far as the stone house, he called upon Elder Kimball and some others to accompany him across the river to visit the sick at Montrose. Many of the saints were living at the old military barracks. Among the number were several of the Twelve. On his arrival the first house he visited was that occupied by Elder Brigham Young, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve, who lay sick.
Joseph healed him, then he arose and accompanied the Prophet on his visit to others who were in the same condition. They also accompanied him. When the company entered the room, the Prophet of God walked up to the dying man and took hold of his right hand and spoke to him; but Brother Fordham was unable to speak, his eyes were set in his head like glass, and he seemed entirely unconscious of all around him.
Joseph held his hand and looked into his eyes in silence for a length of time. A change in the countenance of Brother Fordham was soon perceptible to all present.
His sight returned, and upon Joseph asking him if he knew him, he, in a low whisper, answered 'Yes. He answered, 'I fear it is too late; if you had come sooner I think I would have been healed.
It seemed as though the house shook to its very foundations. Brother Fordham arose from his bed, and was immediately made whole. His feet were bound in poultices which he kicked off; then putting on his clothes he ate a bowl of bread and milk and followed the Prophet into the street. He also was healed by the Prophet. By this time the wicked became alarmed and followed the company into Brother Noble's house. After Noble was healed, all kneeled down to pray.
Brother Fordham was mouth, and while praying he fell to the floor. The Prophet arose, and on looking around he saw quite a number of unbelievers in the house, whom he ordered out.
When the room was cleared of the wicked, Brother Fordham came to and finished his prayer. While waiting for the boat, a man from the West, who had seen that the sick and dying were healed, asked Joseph if he would not go to his house and heal two of his children who were very sick. They were twins and were three months old. Joseph told the man he could not go, but he would send some one to heal them. He told Elder Woodruff to go with the man and heal his children. At the same time he took from his pocket a silk bandanna handkerchief, and gave to Brother Woodruff, telling him to wipe the faces of the children with it, and they should be healed; and remarked at the same time: 'As long as you keep that handkerchief it shall remain a league between you and me.
On the day following that upon which the above-described events took place, Joseph sent Elders George A. They went up as far as Ebenezer Robinson's—one or two miles—and did as they were commanded, and the sick were healed. Let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay upon his God.
Walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled. This shall ye have of mine hand; ye shall lie down in sorrow. This has reference to the Hotchkiss purchase which had just recently been laid out as part of the rapidly growing town of Nauvoo. It constituted the north west part of the city, extending some distance along the river front, and back on to the height of land overlooking the river bottom. The departure of these two Elders upon their mission to England is worthy of a more extended notice.
A brother by the name of Charles Hubbard sent a boy with a team to take them a day's journey on their way. Elder Kimball left his wife in bed shaking with ague, and all his children sick.
It was only by the assistance of some of the brethren that Heber himself could climb into the wagon. I felt as though I could scarcely endure it. Rockwell, in a two-horse carriage for the city of Washington, to lay before the Congress of the United States, the grievances of the Saints while in Missouri. We passed through Carthage, and stayed at Judge Higbee's over night, and the next day we arrived at Quincy.
Elder Rigdon was sick. Friday, November 1. Foster, who administered to Elder Rigdon. Saturday, 2. Foster, who accompanied us so far for that purpose, might administer medicine to Elder Rigdon again.
Sunday, 3. Foster continued to accompany us. They were in good health, compared with what they had been, and in fine spirits. George A. Smith tarried in Cleveland till the next day, to visit his relatives. Murray in their wagon to Willoughby, and from thence they all rode into Kirtland together. Monday, 4. When within one mile of the city, we met William Law [ 1 ] and company with seven wagons from Canada, who returned with us to Springfield, and tarried while we did, until the 8th.
I preached several times while here. General James Adams, [ 2 ] judge of probate, heard of me, sought me out, and took me home with him, and treated me like a father. Friday, 8. Foster having concluded to continue on the journey on account of Elder Rigdon's health, which was still quite poor. We pursued our journey through Indiana towards Columbus, Ohio. The traveling was bad, and our progress slow. He had just begun to recover from a four months' illness of fever and ague.
Miles anointed Theodore Turley, all of which was sealed with the shout of Hosanna. Potter at Newbury, and returned on Tuesday to Kirtland. About this time we had arrived near Columbus, where the roads were so bad, Elder Rigdon's health so poor, and the time so fast approaching when it was necessary for the committee to be in Washington, that I started in the stage with Judge Higbee on the most expeditious route to Washington City, leaving Brothers Rockwell, Rigdon, and Foster, to come on at their leisure in the carriage.
Elder Brigham Young and company went to Fairport, where they waited for a steamboat until Tuesday. Pratt and company sold their horses and carriage at Detroit, and went on to New York City by steamboats, the canal and railway. The churches in these parts are prospering greatly, and are firm in the faith, and increasing in numbers continually. The Church in New York and Brooklyn now numbers from one hundred and fifty to two hundred members, and additions are being made every week. A general conference was held in this city on Tuesday and Wednesday of this week.
Priests present: Addison Everett, Birge, and Vanvelver. Many branches of the Church in the region round about were represented; several hundred members in all, and the numbers still increasing. Great opportunities are open for preaching, and crowded houses are the order of the day. I have also received letters from Maine and from Michigan, with joyful accounts of the spread of the work of the Lord.
Our New York meetings are now held three times every Sabbath in Columbia Hall, Grand Street, a few doors east of the Bowery; it is very central, and one of the best places in the city; it will hold nearly a thousand people, and is well filled with attentive hearers.
Brother Winchester has a good hall well fitted up in Philadelphia, where stated meetings are held—several every week, with crowded audiences. In short the truth is spreading more rapidly than ever before, in every direction, far and near. There is a great call for our books. There is a great call for hymn-books, but none to be had. I wish Sister Smith would add to the old collection such new ones as is best, and republish them immediately.
If means and facilities are lacking in the west, send it here, and it shall be nicely done for her; and at least one thousand would immediately sell in these parts wholesale and retail. The Book of Mormon is not to be had in this part of the vineyard for love or money; hundreds are wanting in various parts hereabouts, but there is truly a famine in that respect.
The conference took into consideration the pressing calls for this book, and have appointed a committee to raise means for the publication of the same, and also to publish it if we can obtain leave from you, who hold the copyright. Any hymn-book which Sister Smith or the Church will favor us with, shall also be published on similar conditions. The winds abated, and he gave glory, honor, and praise to the God who rules all things.
Arriving in Buffalo in the morning, they took the stage for Batavia. While on the mountains some distance from Washington, our coachman stepped into a public house to take his grog, when the horses took fright and ran down the hill at full speed. I persuaded my fellow travelers to be quiet and retain their seats, but had to hold one woman to prevent her throwing her infant out of the coach.
The passengers were exceedingly agitated, but I used every persuasion to calm their feelings; and opening the door, I secured my hold on the side of the coach the best way I could, and succeeded in placing myself in the coachman's seat, and reining up the horses, after they had run some two or three miles, and neither coach, horses, or passengers received any injury.
My course was spoken of in the highest terms of commendation, as being one of the most daring and heroic deeds, and no language could express the gratitude of the passengers, when they found themselves safe, and the horses quiet.
This evening, Elder Brigham Young and company except Elder Kimball, who stopped at Byron to visit his sister rode to Rochester in the steam cars, and from thence rode all night in a horse coach, and arrived at ten in the morning on Friday, 29th, at Auburn, New York.
Elders Taylor and Turley proceeded on their way to New York. Your petitioners, Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Elias Higbee, would most respectfully represent, that they have been delegated, by their brethren and fellow-citizens, known as "Latter-day Saints" commonly called Mormons , to prepare and present to you a statement of their wrongs, and a prayer for their relief, which they now have the honor to submit to the consideration of your Honorable Body.
In the summer of , a portion of the society above-named commenced a settlement in the county of Jackson, in the state of Missouri. The individuals making that settlement had emigrated from almost every state in the Union to the lovely spot in the Far West, with the hope of improving their condition, of building houses for themselves and posterity, and of erecting temples, where they and theirs might worship their Creator according to the dictates of their conscience.
Though they had wandered far from the homes of their childhood, still they had been taught to believe, that a citizen born in any one state in this great Republic, might remove to another and enjoy all the rights and immunities of citizens of the state of his adoption—that wherever waved the American flag, beneath its stars and stripes an American citizen might look for protection and justice, for liberty in person and in conscience.
Some tilled the earth, others bought and sold merchandise, and others again toiled as mechanics. They were industrious and moral, and they prospered, and though often persecuted and vilified for their difference in religious opinion from their fellow citizens, they were happy; they saw their society increasing in numbers, their farms teemed with plenty, and they fondly looked forward to a future, big with hope.
That there was prejudice against them, they knew; that slanders were propagated against them, they deplored; yet they felt that these were unjust; and hoped that time, and uprightness of life, would enable them to outlive them.
While the summer of peace, happiness, and hope shone over the infant settlement of the Saints, the cloud was gathering, unseen by them, that bore in its bosom the thunderbolt of destruction. On the 20th of July, , around their peaceful village a mob gathered, to the surprise and terror of the quiet "Mormons"—why, they knew not; they had broken no law, they had harmed no man, in deed or thought. Why they were thus threatened, they knew not. Soon a committee from the mob called upon the leading "Mormons" of the place; they announced that the store, the printing office, and the shops must be closed, and that forthwith every "Mormon" must leave the county.
The message was so terrible, so unexpected, that the "Mormons" asked time for deliberation and consultation, which being refused, the brethren were severally asked, "Are you willing to abandon your home? The printing office, a two story brick building, was assailed by the mob and torn down, and, with its valuable appurtenances, destroyed.
They next proceeded to the store with a like purpose. Its owner in part, Mr. Gilbert, agreed to close it, and they delayed their purpose. They then proceeded to the dwelling of Mr. Partridge, the beloved Bishop of the Church there, dragged him and his family to the public square, where, surrounded by hundreds, they partly stripped him of his clothing, and tarred and feathered him from head to foot.
A man by the name of Allen was at the same time treated in a similar manner. The mob then dispersed with an agreement to meet again on the next Tuesday, the above outrages having been committed on Saturday.
Tuesday came, and with it came the mob, bearing a red flag, in token of blood. They proceeded to the houses of Isaac Morley, and others of the leading men, and seized them, telling them to bid their families farewell, that they would never see them again. Here some two or three of the "Mormons" offered to surrender up their lives, if that would satisfy the fury of the mob, and purchase peace and security for their unoffending brethren, their helpless wives and children.
The reply of the mob was, that the "Mormons" must leave the county en masse , or that every man should be put to death. The "Mormons," terrified and defenseless, then entered into an agreement to leave the county—one half by the first of January, the other half by the first of April next ensuing. This treaty being made and ratified, the mob dispersed. Again, for a time, the persecuted "Mormons" enjoyed a respite from their persecutions; but not long was the repose permitted them.
Some time in the month of October, a meeting was held at Independence, at which it was determined to remove the "Mormons" or die. Inflammatory speeches were made, and one of the speakers swore he would remove the "Mormons" from the county if he had to wade up to his neck in blood.
Be it remarked that up to this time, the "Mormons" had faithfully observed the treaty, and were guilty of no offense against the laws of the land, or of society, but were peaceably following the routine of their daily duties. Shortly after the meeting above referred to, another persecution commenced; some of the "Mormons" were shot at, others were whipped, their houses were assailed with brickbats, broken open, and thrown down; their women and children were insulted; and thus for many weeks, without offense, without resistance, by night and by day, were they harassed, insulted, and oppressed.
There is a point beyond which endurance ceases to be a virtue. The worm when trampled upon will turn upon its oppressor. A company of about thirty "Mormons" fell in with twice that number of the mob engaged in the destruction of "Mormon" property, when a battle ensued, in which one "Mormon" was killed, and two or three of the mob; acting in concert with the officer who commanded the mob, was Lilburn W.
Boggs, Lieutenant-Governor of the state of Missouri. When the noise of the battle was spread abroad, the public mind became much inflamed. The militia collected in arms from all quarters, and in great numbers, inflamed to fury.
They demanded that the "Mormons" should surrender up all their arms, and immediately quit the county. Compelled by overpowering numbers, the "Mormons" submitted. They surrendered up fifty-one guns, which have never been returned, or paid for.
Imagination cannot paint the terror which now pervaded the "Mormon" community. The weather was intensely cold, and women and children abandoned their homes and fled in every direction without sufficient clothing to protect them from the piercing cold. Women gave birth to children in the woods and on the prairies. One hundred and twenty women and children, for the space of ten days, with only three or four men in the company, concealed themselves in the woods in hourly expectation and fear of massacre, until they finally escaped into Clay county.
The society of "Mormons" after the above disturbances, removed to the county of Clay, where they were kindly received by the inhabitants, and their wants administered to by their charity. In the meantime the houses of the "Mormons" in the county of Jackson, amounting to about two hundred, were burned down or otherwise destroyed by the mob, as well as much of their crops, furniture, and stock.
The damage done to the property of the "Mormons" by the mob in the county of Jackson as above related, as near as they can ascertain, would amount to the sum of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars.
The number of "Mormons" thus driven from the county of Jackson amounted to about twelve hundred souls. For the property thus destroyed they have never been paid. After the expulsion of the "Mormons" from the county of Jackson as above related, they removed to and settled in the county of Clay. They there purchased out some of the former inhabitants, and entered at the land office wild lands offered for sale by the General Government.
The most of them became freeholders, owning each an eighty or more of land. The "Mormons" lived peaceably in the county of Clay for about three years, and all that time increased rapidly in numbers, by emigration, and also in wealth by their industry.
After they had resided in that county about three years, the citizens not connected with them began to look upon them with jealousy and alarm. Reports were again put in circulation against them: public meetings were held in the counties of Clay and Jackson, at which violent resolutions were passed against the "Mormons," and rumors of mobs began again to spread alarm among the "Mormons. These terms were complied with.
The "Mormons" removed to and settled in the county of Caldwell, and the citizens never paid them value for their lands. Many received nothing at all for their land. The "Mormons," by this removal, sacrificed much both of money and feeling, but the sacrifice was made upon the altar of duty, for the peace of the community. Your Memorialists would beg here to give what they believe a just explanation of the causes of the prejudice and persecution against the "Mormons" related above, and which will follow.
That there might have been some unworthy members among them, cannot be denied; but many aver that as a community they were as moral, as upright, and as observant of the laws of the land as any body of people in the world. Why then this prejudice and persecution? An answer they trust will be found in the fact that they were a body of people distinct from their fellow-citizens, in religious opinions, in their habits, and in their associations.
They were numerous enough to make the power of their numerical and moral force a matter of anxiety and dread to the political and religious parties by which they were surrounded; which arose not from what the "Mormons" had done, but from the fear of what they might do.
In addition, the "Mormons" have purchased of the settlers, or of the Government, or obtained by pre-emption, the best lands in all those regions of the state; and at the times of speculation, the cupidity of many was aroused to possess those lands by driving off the "Mormons," and taking forcible possession, or constraining them to sell, through fear and coercion, at a price merely nominal.
After the "Mormons" removed from Clay county, they settled in the county of Caldwell as aforesaid. Your Memorialists do not deem it necessary for their purpose, to detail the history of the progress, the cares, and anxieties of the "Mormons," from the time they settled in Caldwell in the year until the fall of the year They would, however, state, that during all that time they deported themselves as good citizens, obeying the laws of the land, and the moral and religious duties enjoined by their faith.
That there might have been some faithless among the faithful is possible. They would not deny that there might have been some who were a scandal to their brethren; and what society, they would ask, has not some unworthy members? Where is the sect, where the community, in which there cannot be found some who trample under foot the laws of God and man?