relief under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (In re Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., , U.S. Bankruptcy Court, Southern District of New York (Manhattan)). Pursuant to Instruction 1 of Item to the Securities and Exchange Commission's Current Report. Kōdai-ke no Hitobito Manga Gets Special Chapter in December () North American Anime, Manga Releases, November () Seven Seas Licenses Leiji Matsumoto's Space Battleship Yamato. A Frozen Stream? 4 A Machine Appears 57 5 A Parenthesis on Film History 6I 6 A Rule and its Ubiquity 67 7 Bulwarks of Tradition 75 Part 3. Cross-Currents 8 Transformational Modules 89 9 Lines and Spaces 93 io The Fate of Alien Modes o00 11 Displacements and Condensations IIo 12 Surface and Depth 13 Kinugasa Teinosuke Part 4.
Author: Takeshi Natsuhara already has 1,, views. If you want to read free manga, come visit us at anytime. We promise you that we will always bring you the latest, new and hot manga everyday.
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You can experience it by using your smartphone and read manga online right now. It's manga time!! Kurosagi Vol. Have a beautiful day! You can support us by leaving comments or just a click on the Like button! View : 88,, Subzero Subzero Chapter 74 View : 1,, View : , Rendaku does not happen in a predicate-argument relation such as sakana turi "fishing".
Rendaku usually occurs in N2 of word compounds, but not always. On the contrary, if a compound shows the characteristics of a biphrasal compound, Rendaku will not occur between two phrases.
The structure of the word "koo u'irusu" When this word compound needs to be combined with another phrasal structure, a '0' which dominates this current structure and the ko 'o retians its original accent and u 'irusu is deaccented: ya'ku i , ko'o uirusu Figure The structure of the word "ko'o uirusu ya'ku" Other structures such as the following are not possible: o a ya'ku koo ui iusu Figure The wrong structure of the word "kou u'irusu ya'ku" word and deaccent the first word or combined word, such as the pair monohosi and kagebosi explained in type 6.
As Kubozono mentioned, compounds with a predicate-argument relation are usually biphrasal compounds. X-taroo compounds: There are three kinds of accents in X-taroo compounds Kubozono : 1. Word compounds. When N1 has only one syllable, the whole compound will be unaccented. When N1 has two syllables and two morae, the compound will be assigned an accent to the final syllable ofN1. Monophrasal compounds. When N1 has three moras or more, N2 will retain the accent.
However, this constraint is violated by almost every candidate and thus is not so convincing. Except for compounds undergoing deaccentuation, there is no constraint in this ranking to reflect the fact that most compounds need at least one accent regardless of their structure.
The data show that a constraint is needed to account for this generalization, and Chapter 3 provides a more specific explanation. The above sections provide an overview of Japanese accents on single words and compounds and the OT analyses proposed to date. Except for the level of word and phrasal compounds mentioned in Kubozono et al.
In the following discussion, I introduce recent research on dividing the compounds into three levels by Ito and Mester Following that, I redefine the three levels and provide a new typology for further analysis on complex structures in Japanese compounding. If there is no meiyo "honored", the accent will be ka 'wase kyoozyu "Professor Kawase", in which kyoozyu remains unaccented. However, meiyokyo 'o zyu "honored professor" is combined as a compound word at the prosodic level before being further combined as a phrasal compound.
Another possibility is to treat it as a tri-phrasal compound ka 'wase meiyo kyoozyu. Type 9 biphrasal compounds In this type, the accent patterns on 1 and D2 will be retained. If there is no accent on 1 and D2, no new accent should appear and there should be no accent shifts from any position. In the following chapter, I analyze the data using the OT approach and propose constraints for compounds of word and phrasal levels.
In the last part of the next chapter, I also explore the internal structures of prefixes. Constraints proposed can account for the internal structures of compounds in two levels and for the deaccentuation phenomenon. At the end of this chapter, prefixes are also analyzed in those two levels. The constraint MAX accent requires the accent on the head of a compound to be retained.
The definitions for some new constraints used are as follows: 1. MAXIOo accent requires an accent corresponding to the head in a prosodic word 2. Internal structure mapping may explain the invisibility of N. Here is an example ofgarasu-dama "glass ball" given by Oda to illustrate that N1 is mapped as a whole with no concern about its internal structure y means foot stem. Metrical Tier W Rendaku may occur only in o3 as in Ito and Mester This type has been explored extensively in Ito and Mester Examples given by them are: ta 'nuki tani no 'bori "valley climbing by badgers", genkinfu 'rikomi "cash deposit", aka ta 'manegi "red round -onion", nootopa 'sokon "notebook PC".
Those constraints are also divided into the word and phrasal level which correspond to the levels of compounds. This analysis needs no rerankable constraints as in Tanaka Prefixes For prefixes, if they are in a biphrasal construction, they will retain their accent. If they appear in a word structure, it means that the phrasal structure of the prefix is somewhat restricted from being active in a whole word compound, indicated by ' D '.
I explore the following examples with the prefix "koo" meaning high: accent of N2 is on the junctural position. So on the surface, finding an accent in the junctural position may not be a perfect standard to determine whether a compound is a word or a phrasal compound. Although Ito et al. Moreover, since N2 with more than 5 morae should form a phrasal compound, nojunctural accent should occur, as is given in Ito and Mester However, in the word hoogen a 'kusento "dialect and accents", there is an accent in the juncture position which coincides with the original accent on a 'kusento "accent".
Another exception to this analysis is the word tenka ta 'imingu "the timing of the sparks". The N2 of this compound has five morae, which should stay unaccented according to Ito and Mester's analysis, however, the junctural accent occurs since taimigu is originally unaccented. The following table shows the typology Ito and Mester proposed. In this table, the square L represents the minimal projection, and the round shape Q represents the maximal projection.
The symbol "r" represents the phenomenon of Rendaku. Rendaku is a phenomenon that happens in compounding where the first consonant, if it is an obstruent, of the second word becomes voiced after being combined into a compound. For example, iro "color" and kami "paper" combines to form irogami "colored paper" where the consonant "k" becomes the voiced "g" Tsujimura Rendaku can only happen in word and monophrasal compounds, but some word compounds may not have Rendaku.
However, ifRendaku occurs, it is definitely not a biphrasal compound. For quadrimoraic heads, MAX accent and ALIGN-L c', root , which requires the left edge of an accented syllable to align to the root, ensure that the winner will have its accent on the left edge of N2 mora.
Tanaka gave three cases where the de-accentuation phenomenon occurs: final-accented N2, quadrimoraic words and words with both conditions met. Constraint ranking by Tanaka In this ranking, there are three pairs that can be re-ranked because Tanaka's analysis does not distinguish different compound structures. It can be improved by using different constraints to analyze different structures, namely, the basic nine types presented in Chapter 2.
Directional verbs in Japanese. Amsterdan: John Benjamins Publishing Co. Tanaka, Shinichi Issues in Japanese Phonology and Morphology, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Truckenbrodt, H. On the relation between syntactic phrases and phonological phrases. Linguistic Inquiry Tsujimura, Natsuko.
The accent of long nominal compounding in Tokyo Japanese. Studies in Language An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Unger, James Marshall Studies in early Japanese morphophonemics. Doctoral dissertation, Yale University. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Vance, Timothy J. Tokyo: Kurosio Publishers, The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese Left-branching and Right-branching Differences in an OT Approach In the following section, I examine the reason that left-branching compounds tend to be a whole word compound.
Truckenbrodt has investigated the relation between phonological phrases and syntactic XP. So left-branching compounds have the tendency to be treated as a whole prosodic word-word compound. Two members in a compound may retain their own accents if they do not combine phonologically as a prosodic word, which is treated as compounding in the phrasal level by Ito and Mester Kubozono et al.
Certain prefixes such as ze 'n "before" and bo 'o "certain" 2. However, if each member has no more than two morae, the compound will have one combined accent.
Two members are in an equal status. For example, ha'ku syu kassai "clapping hands and acclaiming" retain their own accents. Two members have a subj ect-obj ect relation. For example, ka'zi tetuda 'i "helping of chores" 4. Names plus titles such as ku ri 'n ton daito 'oryoo "President Clinton" 5. Family names and first names such asyu 'kawa hi 'deki. However, if the internal structure of a name is not considered, the whole name can bear one accent. Kawase ", they tend to be biphrasal compounds which retain their accents on both N1 and N2.
The semantic information described here is also considered in my definition in Chapter 2. They pointed out that N2 with more than 5 morae or three-morpheme Sino-Japanese words tend to keep their accent pattern, namely, to remain unaccented or to have the accent at the same position as the words in isolation.
Figure Oda's analysis of the word "hosi awabi" Most of the research on compound accents above does not distinguish between word compounds and phrasal compounds. Almost everyone agrees that the assignment of accent relies on the length or the structure of N2. In the above overview of previous research, little attention has been given to the original accent on N2 and its role in determining the accent pattern.
The generalization is missing that N2 with an original accent on the first mora will almost always retain it regardless of the length of N2. Even if a N2 is considered to be long or short, it may not behave as the rules predict because deeper structure is involved.
Recent research, especially that in an OT approach, paid more attention to the comparison of the accent input and the output. Type 3 word compounds This type basically has two possible accentuations: one is to have a junctural accent, the other is to be unaccented. The compound rule ofjunctural accent applies here too.
Unaccented types must contain a word that loses its original accent. If the words are originally unaccented, they are considered to have retained their accent patterns. If the boundary of word length is abandoned, and instead used to categorize monophrasal and word compounds according to their characteristics, some of the words may fall into two categories.
I- koo bu'nsi "high polymer" 75 A -4x kooeneru'gi "high energy" 76 AF. The structure of the word "koo bunsi" I I koo enern'gi Figure The structure of the word "koo enerugi" ko'o byoogen sei Figure The structure of the word "ko'o byoogen sei" Other prefixes such as tyo 'o and hi' can show either word or biphrasal compound structure. Left branching tri-phrasal compounding is also possible such as: biphrasal and word compound. Usually, for biphrasal compounds, Rendaku does not happen, as for example between the first and last family name.
Thus, the whole compound should be a monophrasal one. Moreover, the binary word hanayome has two morphemes hana "flower" andyome "bride", which is binary, but the whole compound retains its accent in nihonzin hana 'yome "Japanese bride".
Using the current data, I explore the accent pattern according to the length of N2 as follows Please refer to Appendix B for more data : It is interesting to note that if the length of N2 is greater than five morae, then final accented examples are hard to find. The accent on N2 of more than five morae is the most stable because the whole compound can keep its accent or remain unaccented if N2 is originally so.
It is relatively hard to remain unaccented if N2 contains fewer than 5 morae and does not have an accent originally. On the contrary, the whole compound tends to keep the accent on the first syllable if N2 has an original accent there, but N2 with 2 morae or fewer can be so active that even the accent on the first syllable can shift. Moreover, finally accented N2 usually triggers deaccentuation of the whole compound, but finally accented N2 with fewer than 5 morae may still have a junctural accent when forming a compound.
This analysis in the OT approach can provide an explanation for the difference of left-branching and right-branching compounds. Conclusions, Problems and Further Research My analysis of the new typology has some limitations which remain to be solved in the future. According to the definition, it is difficult to distinguish a word compound from a monophrasal one when a long N2 has its accent on the first mora, which coincides with the default junctural accent position.
The previous research by Ito and Mester relies only on thejunctural accent to determine if it is a word or monophrasal compound and by my definition, all "monophrasal compounds" which have an original accent on the first syllable of N2 will be word compounds in Ito and Mester's standard.
There is also one exception that Rendaku does not show up in the predicted structure, which is the word sakanaturi "fishing" mentioned in chapter two. This cannot be explained either by my analysis or previous analyses. The structure of the word "ondankabo'osi" Figure By contrast, in a phrase, the accent of both members is independent and will not change.
The affix connecting two members in a word may cause the accent on the first member to disappear, and this helps keep the accent of N2.
This is similar to compounds in the de-accentuation pattern. In order to account for the similarity between 5 morae and three -morpheme Sino-Japanese words, Kubozono introduces the standard of counting in feet. Two morae or a Sino-Japanese morpheme can constitute one foot. For words of five morae and three-morphemes, there are at least three feet.
When N2 is less than or equal to two feet, the whole compound is a word compound. For three-foot N2, accent pattern of N2 will be retained. For N2 with more than three feet, the accent of each of the two members will be retained Kubozono et al. Oda 's analysis on short and long compounds correspond to the word compound level in Kubozono et al. Different length within word compounds may result in different accent locations. Deaccentuation Oda proposed three puzzles concerning deaccentuation phenomena in compounds: First, finally accented N2 may cause the whole compound to be deaccented McCawley Second, when the whole compound consists of four light syllables and N2 has two light syllables, the whole compound tends to be deaccented.
Third, if N2 is long, the whole compound will never be deaccented. Kubozono, Haruo Constraint interaction in Japanese phonology: Evidence from Compound Accent. Phonology at Santa Cruz 4. Issues in Japanese Phonology and Morphology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. In Spoken Language Research Group eds. Bunpoo to onsei. Tokyo: Kurosio Publishers. Mathieu-Colas, Michel Essai de typologic des norms composes francais. Ca hiers de lexicologie Genralized Alignment. In Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle eds.
Yearbook of morphology. Dordrencht: Kluwer. McCawley, James The Phonological Component ofa Grammar ofJapanese. The Hague: Mouton. Accent in Japanese. In Hyman,L.
Studies in Stress and Accent. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4: NHK Oda, Kenji The accentuation patterns of nominal compounds in Japanese. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar.
Revised version published Online: roa. Schlucker, Barbara Naming strategies in West Germanic Lanugages. Paper presented at the ICLC5-conference. Selkirk, Elizabeth Phonology and Syntax: the Relation between Sound and Structure.
Massachusetts: MIT Press. Selkirk, Elisabeth The prosodic structure of function words. Type 4 left-branching monophrasal compounds The compound rule applies to col and co2 first. Ajunctural accent may appear in ol' or it may remain unaccented. When combined with o3, the accent on o3 will be retained and ol' will be deaccented. If there is no accent on col' or o3, they will still remain unaccented.
Problems as illustrated in type 1, are that when o3 has an accent on its first mora, it is hard to tell whether it is a word compound or a monophrasal compound. For the case of the unaccented ol' and co3, it may look like biphrasal compounds which retain their accent patterns, but biphrasal compounds do not have Rendaku while monophrasal compounds can.
A more complex standard is set up based on characteristics of the three levels word, monophrasal and biphrasal levels. As this standard reflects the internal association between these levels and through the change of accent location, the change across these levels is also demonstrated, such as the change from a monophrasal compound to a word compound.
This standard can account for the exceptions such as kuda 'mono "fruit" which does not have ajunctural accent but is predicted to have one according to the standard in Ito and Mester Also, compounds containing N2 of more than four morae are predicted to have nojunctural accent by Ito and Mester while taimingu "timing" and akusento "accent" are exceptions to this prediction, which can be handled using my standard. My analysis also provides a new typology and accounts for the difference between left- branching and right-branching compounds.
More complex structures and prefixes which have never been analyzed for different levels are analyzed based on basic structures within the typology. For the OT analysis, constraints from different levels are proposed to deal with cases of junctural accent and accent retention.
As for deaccentuation phenomenon, in which the whole compound loses its compound, I propose a new constraint IDENT O-Ico accent which explains why final accented N2 will trigger deaccentuation. Previous research on this topic will be mentioned later in this chapter. In Chapter 1, the basic facts of Japanese accent are introduced, with a summary of previous analyses and an overview of the proposed analysis of compound accents. Pitch accent in Japanese: a metrical analysis. University of Texas at Austin Thesis.
Lexicalization and Language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Giegerich, Heinz Compound or phrase? English noun-plus-noun constructions and the stress criterion. English Language and Linguistics. Haraguchi, Shosuke Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
A Theory of Stress and Accent. Providence RI- U. Higurashi, Yoshiko Ito, Junko Prosodic minimality in Japanese. Correspondence and compositionality: The ga-gyo variation in Japanese phonology. In Derivations and Constraints in Phonology, ed. Iggy Roca ed. Derivations and Constraints in Phonology. Japanese Morphophonemics Markedness and Word Structure. Prosodic Adjunction in Japanese Compounds. In Yoichi Miyamoto and Masao Ochi eds. Iwasaki, Shoichi Meikai kogojiten [Explanatory dictionary of Japanese archaisms].
Tokyo: Sanseido. The organization of Japanese Prosody. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. Word Formation and Phonological Structure. Gokei sei to Onin Kouzoo. In data collection, many native speakers helped me in determining the correct accent and I would reallly like to thank t hem: Yositaka Kawase, Mami Tanaka, Yukari Nakamura and Miwa Horie. Shinichi Tanaka for providing me resources to this problem and even sending their own papers to me.
Based on the recorded accent, further anal ysis has been done in assigning accent markers. After investigating the accent patterns through all different length categories and the various original accent patterns of the component words in isolation, common characteristics involved in word, monophras al and biphrasal levels are proposed which form the basis of the new typology.
Different levels of constra ints such as correspond to distinct levels of the internal structure of compounds. Constraints on the phonology-syntax interface are used to account for the difference between left -branching and right -branching compounds.
My analysis accounts for the internal structure of compounds and redefines and associates different PAGE 10 10 levels.
The accents of compounds are not easily predicted by phonological rules because compounds may have different structures influenced by semantic or pragmatic information1 1 In Vances review of Kubozonos book, biphrasal compounds are described as more likely to be used by speakers in careful speech.
If a speaker has a pragmatic focus on the compound, then the whole compound or part of it are more likely to be biphrasal.
Vance, Previous research by McCawley , Tsujimura , Kubozono and Oda dealt well with th e accent patterns of compounds at the word level. Most of them agree that when N2 is long three morae and more , the accent will fall on the first mora of N2 and when N2 is short two morae or fewer , the accent will fall on the final mora of N1 the first member of a compound.
This position is at the boundary of N1 and N2, either the final mora of N1 or the first mora of N2. Ito and Mester have further divided the levels into word, monophrasal and biphrasal compounds, where junctural accent is the only standard to distinguish word and phrasal levels The length of N2 determines if the compound is in the word or phrasal level.
PAGE 12 12 This thesis further investigates accent patterns in Japanese compounds and explores nine basic structures of compounds which may affect accent patterns. As this standard reflects the internal association between these levels and through the change of accent location, the change across these levels is also demon strated, such as the change from a monophrasal compound to a word compound.
This standard can account for the exceptions such as kudamono fruit which does not have a junctural accent but is predicted to have one according to the standard in Ito and Mest er Also, compounds containing N2 of more than four morae are predicted to have no junctural accent by Ito and Mester while taimingu timing and akusento accent are exceptions to this prediction, which can be handled using my standard.
My analysis also provides a new typology and accounts for the difference between left branching and right -branching compounds. More complex structures and prefixes which have never been analyzed for different levels are analyzed based on basic structures with in the typology.
As for deaccentuation phenomenon, in which the whole compound loses its compound, I propose a new constraint IDENT O which explains why final accented N2 will trigger deaccentuation. Chapter 1 also summarizes previous research on the difference bet ween word and phrasal accents and a special PAGE 13 13 phenomenon called deaccentuation, as well as previous analyses done in OT Prince and Smolensky, Chapter 2 deals with the typology of compound accents and proposes nine basic structures for word, phras al and biphrasal structures.
Other compound data were collected thro ugh the Internet and read by four Japanese native speakers. I detected the l ocation of the pitch -fall throughout the data and confirmed some locations with the native speakers. Chapter 3 analyzes every typical structural pattern mentioned in Chapter 2 using an OT approach, and Chapter 4 discusses the advantage s of the new typolog y and some remaining issues for further research.
A mor a can be a vowel or a CV. PAGE 14 14 For example, in the word ansin not worried, there are four morae a, n, si, n. Tsujimur a Japanese is a pitch accent language which bears a tone on each mora. The accent marker generally indicates a pitch fall in different analyses. In this p aper, the will be used for convenience to indicate the accent marker.
For example, in the word sora sky, the accent is located at the first syllable on the vowel o and the word has a tonal pattern of high -low. If the accent is located at the seco nd mora, as is in kokoro heart, the tonal pattern is low -highlow. If the accent is on the third mora, the tonal pattern would be low -high-high. Moreover, if there is no accent, the whole word would be low -high -high. While tones are assigned to morae, a syllable bears an accent s o pitch -fall will not occur after a coda: N nasal ,Q a long consonant or a long vowel and any ru le that trie s to assign an accent to the coda will fail T he accent will move to the vowel before the nasal or to the middle of a long vowel Iwasaki For example, in the word tenki weather, the accent is assigned as in tenki instead of tenki.
Mc Cawley, Haraguchi and Bennett have slightly different rules for the association of tones. McCawleys pitch assignment rules initially make every mora high pitched. Haraguchi argued that the first step is to associate the high tone to a vowel with an accent mark or to the rightmost vowel in cases where there is no accent m ark. After the application of UTAC, the initial lowering rule is applied to assign a low tone to the first mora with no underlying accent. The last step is to eliminate contour tones by delinking the second tone associated with the same vowel Haraguchi 19 As shown in Figure 1 1, s he uses a left -branching tree to derive accent patterns.
She argued that within , H is assigned to the right node otherwise L is associated with the right node Figure 1 1. Bennetts analysis of accent markers and tone assignment Haraguchi analyzed the accent patterns on single words including nouns, verbs and a djectives.
T he accent of nouns is usually assigned to the antepenultimate mora by rules. L oanwords and compound nouns also have this tendency. The accent will fall in the final vowel of the stem. He a lso specified his analysis based on the length of nouns.
T he accent of short nouns cannot be predicted while long accented noun words tend to have the accent in the antepenultimate mora. When a high vowel is PAGE 16 16 devoiced because it appears between two voiceles s consonants or word finally after a voiceless consonant the accent will be shifted to the left.
For example, the word on gaku kai music concert will become ongakUkai ; however, the accent on the initial mora will shift to the right from hukaku to h U k a k U deep. In McCawleys analysis the second noun in a compound N2 has a dominant role in determining the accent of the whole compound regardless of the first noun N1 Most later analyses also follow this approach. Though analyses of compound rules vary, they basically accounted for unaccented compounds and similar accent positions in compounds: the first syllable of N2, the last syllable of N1, the accent position retained in N2.
Di fferent analyses for these cases are shown by the following. The accent of the whole compound will be assigned on the first syllable of N2: McCawley when: N2 is long having at least three morae N2 is a Sino Japanese word N2 is final accented or completely unaccented; Tsujimura when: A long N2 is unaccented or has an accent on the penultimate or final mora; Oda when: N2 is long.
The accent will be on the final syllable of N1 Kubozono when: If N2 is short and has an accent o n the final syllable or is unaccented. McCawley proposed three c ases of noun compound formation.
For long compounds, the accent of the whole compound wi ll be the same as the original accent of N2 unless N2 has its accent in the final syllable. If the accent of N2 is in the final syllable or N2 is unaccented, the whole compound will be assigned a new accent on the final syllable of N1 Also in short compounds, the accent will appear in the final syllable of N1 such as ka.
The second is that if N2 is long, the original accent will be at the left PAGE 19 19 edge of N2, otherwise, it will move to the end of N1. Oda di stinguishes between word compounds and extended-word compounds to avoid the arbitrary difference between short and long compounds.
He based his analysis on the five following assumptions and gave the internal structure of short and long N2: s hort N2 can on ly form a single f oot while long N2 will always form more than one foot. Figure 1 2. Odas analysis of short and long N2 structures 1 Assumption 1 P rosodic constituents should be parsed in the leftward direction and the unit of parsing should be a mora.
Two members in a compound may retain their own accents if they do not combine phonologically as a prosodic word, which is treated as compounding in the phrasal level by Ito a nd Mester For example haku syu kassai c lapping hands and a cclaiming retain their own accents.
However, if each member has no more than two morae, the compo und will have one combined accent. For example kazi tetudai helping of chores 4 Names plus titles such as ku rin ton daito o ryoo President Cli n ton 5 Family name s and first name s such as yukawa hideki However, if the internal structure of a name is not considered, the whole name can bear one accent.
If two parts of a compound refer to the same content such as N1: content N2: label, N1: last name N2: first name, N1: name N2: organization, or N1: title N2 name such as kawase hakase Dr. Kawase they tend to be biphrasal compounds which retain their accents on both N1 and N2.
The semant ic information described here is also considered in my definition in Chapter 2. They pointed out that N2 with more than 5 morae or three -morpheme Sino Japanese words tend to keep their accent pattern, namely, to remain unaccented or to have the accent at the same position as the words in isolation 2 All the long vowel ou in the Japanese data are represe nted as oo for consistency, even if the source used ou.
PAGE 21 21 They believed that i n a compound word, the accent of the two members are d ependent, even if the two do not bear accents, and the whole compound will have at most one. By contrast, i n a phrase, the accent of both members is independent and will not change. This is similar to c ompounds in the de accentuation pattern.
In order to account for the similarity between 5 morae and three -morpheme SinoJapanese words, Kubozono introduces the standard of counting in f ee t.
Two morae or a Sino Japanese morpheme can constitute one foot. F or words of five morae and three -morphemes, there are at least three feet. When N2 is less than or equal to two fee t, the whole compound is a word compound. For three -foot N2, accent pattern of N2 will be retained. For N2 with more than three feet the accent of each of the two members will be retained Kubozono et al.
Oda s analysis on short and long compounds correspond to the word compound level in Kubozono et al. Different length within word compounds may result in diff erent accent locations. Deaccentuation Oda proposed three puzzles concerning deaccentuation phenomena in compounds : First, finally accented N2 may cause the whole compound to be deaccented McCawley Second, when the whole compound cons ists of four light syllables and N2 has two light syllables, the whole compound tends to be deaccented.
Internal structure mapping may explain the invisibility of N1. Here is an example of garasu-dama glass ball given by Oda to illustrate that N1 is mapped as a whole with no concern about its internal structure. Figure 1 3. Odas analysis of the word kuro neko the following structure: Figure 1 5. Odas analysis of the word hosi awabi Most of the research on compound accents above does not distinguish between word comp ounds and phrasal compounds. Even if a N2 is considered to be long or short, it may not behave as the rules predict beca use deeper structure is involved.
R ecent research, especially that in an OT approach, paid more attention to the comparison of the accent input and the output. In PAGE 24 24 later chapters, I develop a typology considering both the length, structure and the original accent of N2 as well as the structure of the whole compound. Kubozono explained that SJ words behave as if they are monosyllabic and if the final i in seki is invisible to the above rule, then SJ words will not be an exception.
Kubozono hence pr oposed a constraint NON to solve this problem. After the first analysis in the OT approach by Kubozono, Tanaka has concluded, base d on previous research, that there are three primary characteristics of Japanese compound s First, the accent on N2 is usually retain ed or a new accent will occur on the first mora of N2. Finally, for short N2, namely one or two morae, an accent will occur just before the N1 -N2 boundary, otherwise it will occur immediately PAGE 25 25 after it.
These three properties may be in conflict when accent needs to appear before the boundary and N2 needs to retain its acc ent. Tanaka revised K ubozonos generalization and pointed out that compound accent is usually assigned to the penultimate foot unless preservation is needed in foreign, archaic native and Sino Japanese heads.
Accordingly, T anaka based his constraints on Ku bozonos MAX accent which requires the accent of the head root to be retain ed ; ALIGN which requires the accented syllable to align to the left edge of a head root; and ALIGN-R which requires the alignment between the right edge of a prosodic word and that of the accented syllable. ALIGN in mimetic words. ALIGN because of its gradient property and it can be applied among many languages.
For native words such as ningyohime doll princess the accent cannot occur on the first mora of hime because it violates NON which ranks higher than MAX accent according to Tanaka. Tana ka g ave three cases where the de accentuation phenomenon occurs: finalaccented N2, quadrimoraic words and words with both conditions met. So the constraint ranking is revised as below t he dotted lines are an indication of rerankable constraints : Figure 1 6.
Constraint ranking by Tanaka In this ranking, there are three pairs that can be re ranked becau se Tanakas analysis does not distinguish different compound structures. However, this constraint is violated by almost e very candidate and thus is not so convincing. The above sections provide a n overview of Japanese accents on single words and compounds and the OT analyses proposed to date.
In the followi ng discussion, I introduce recent research on dividing the compounds into three levels by Ito and Mester It is argued that Japanese can have only one accent in each or pitch accent Ito and Mester Ito and Mester classified compounds into word compounds and phrasal com pounds. Only in a word compound can a junctural accent occur. The standard for distinguishing a word compound from a phras al compound lies in the length of the second member.
If the second member contains more than four morae, then the whole compound has t o be parsed as a phrasal compound Ito and Mester M onophrasal and biphrasal compounds do not allow any junctural accent to happen according to Kubozono In a word compound, a junctural accent is placed in Figure 2 1. Figure 2 1. Junctura l accent Howeve r, the position of the junctural accent may coincide with the original N2 accent. For example, in the biphrasal compound yukawa hideki Yukawa Hideki name , the original PAGE 29 29 accent of N2 is on the junctural position.
So on the surface, findi ng an accent in the junctural position may not be a perfect standard to determine whether a compound is a word or a phrasal compound Although Ito et al. Moreover, since N2 with more than 5 morae should form a phrasal compound, no junctural accent should occur as is given in Ito and Mester However, in the word hoogen akusento dialect and accents there is a n accent in the juncture position which coincides with the orig inal accent on akusento accent Another exception to this analysis is the word tenka taimingu the timing of the sparks.
The N2 of this compound has five morae, which should stay unaccented according to Ito and Mesters analysis, however, the junctur al accent occurs since taimigu is originally unaccented. In this table, the square represents the minimal projection, and the round shape represents the maximal projection.
The symbol r represents the phenomenon of Rendaku. For example, iro color and kami paper c ombines to form irogami colored paper where the consonant k becomes the voiced g Tsujimura PAGE 30 30 Table 2 1. The typology of compo unds by Ito and Mester According to Kubozono, Ito and Mester , t he crucial factor that determines wh ether a compound is a word compound or phrasal compound is the length of N2. However, it is apparently not true for biphrasal compounds since even if N2 containts fewer than 4 morae there is no junctural accent.
For words with fewer PAGE 31 31 than 5morae, such as biiru beer they usually have an original accent on the first mora. So in a left branching compound minami amerika biiru South America beer one cannot be certain if it is a word compound with a new junctural accent on N2 or if it is a monophrasal compound which retains its original accent.
I will treat it as a monophrasal compound in the OT approa ch section, to make it parallel with the South American asparagus case, which must be a monophrase. S o we can say that it is a monophrase with a n N2 of only four morae. However, t he oc currence of Rendaku cannot guarantee the identity of a word compound.
There are variations to word compounds and monophrasal compound s Kubozono , Rendaku does not happen in a predicate argument relat ion such as sakana turi fishing. But they can actuall y be analyzed as having different compound structures: word compounds or monophrasal compounds, s o there is a trend for these words to change from a monophrasal compound to a word compound. For example, the phrase ice cream may lose its stress on the word cream and the stress is assigned on ice because the whole phrase enters into the lexicon and becomes ice cream.
In Old English, lexicalization may happen so that the whole compound may be fused into a word such as earwig PAGE 34 34 biphrasal and word compound. Usually, for biphrasal compounds, Rendaku does not happen as for example between the first and last family name. Moreover, the binary word hanayome has two morphemes hana flower and yome brid e, which is binary, but the whole compound retains its accent in nihonzin hanayome Japanese bride Using the current data, I explore the accent pattern according to the length of N2 as follows Please refer to Appendix B for more data : It is interest ing to note that if the length of N2 is greater than five morae, then final accented examples are hard to find.