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Related videosTo Kill a Mockingbird chapter 22 Summary \u0026 Analysis
In Chapter 10 Harper Lee makes the reader aware that Atticus is a man to be reckoned with. Both the reader and Scout now see that Atticus is far from weak and incapable of defending himself and his family. Lee also makes the reader experience suspense as the dog appears and as the sheriff and Atticus wait on the deserted street for him to walk toward them.
The feeling evoked in the reader is expectancy, not unlike that the viewer of a western movie feels when the showdown on the main street of town is imminent.
Lee employs symbolism when Atticus tells the children not To Kill a Mockingbird. The mockingbird is symbolic of Tom Robinson. Several kinds of bravery are evident in Chapter Atticus proves his bravery when he walks to the middle of the street to meet the rabid dog. But there is a more important kind of bravery that he demonstrates in hiding skills that he is not especially proud of.
He is brave enought to live as a good and peace-loving man, honest to his values. It would be easy enough for him to flaunt his flashier abilities and be more popular. But he would probably consider this cowardly, and he would probably not value the admiration this would bring him. This is similar to the bravery he displays in defending Tom Robinson despite strong disapproval. The other prominent theme is that of maturation.
Jem has discovered that if one feels satisfied with onself, then it does not matter what others think. Jem has now reached a higher stage of moral development and maturity than his younger sister who seeks only the approval of her peers.
Because Mrs. Dubose makes sly remarks about Atticus, Jem returns to cut all the buds off her camellia bushes. Atticus confronts Jem with the cut flowers and advises Jem to talk with Mrs. Dubose requires Jem and Scout to visit her six days a week for a month and read to her for two hours. She admits to Atticus and the children that she is requiring them to stay longer each day and that she is extending the total time by a week.
Jem, Scout, and Mrs. Dubose dies. Dubose was a morphine addict. After her death Atticus explains to the two children that they helped distract her and helped her die free of any drug addiction. He says Mrs. Dubose is the bravest person he knows. Discussion and Analysis Throughout the difficult weeks in which Atticus had been subjected to so much criticism from the community, Jem had been very careful to control his temper and to advise Scout to do the same.
In Chapter 11, he finally snaps. The initial confrontation occurs when Mrs. Dubose hurls insults at the children. Jem returns to her house in a rage and cuts all of her prize camellia bushes. Atticus forces Jem to face up to his act and to go talk with Mrs. She decides upon his punishment. For over a month he must visit her and read to her for two hours, six days a week. Although Jem does not realize it at first, this pact requires inner strength from both Jem and Mrs. Jem must fight with his anger at all of the cruel things that Mrs.
Dubose says about the Finch family. Dubose faces an even greater trial. She is forcing herself to overcome an addiction to morphine, a process which requires great willpower and bravery. Dubose is an old woman and because she is sick, she can speak her mind more loudly and honestly than most members of the community. Her age and infirmity place her slightly outside of the regular social codes.
Many other people feel the way she does, but up until this point only children have been impolite enough to express their feelings. Dubose becomes an important part of their education. Although at first she seems only to be cantankerous and antagonizing, through Atticus they learn of her considerable strength of character.
They also learn by her example the true meaning of bravery. Although Chapter 11 is an episode complete within itself, the plot of To Kill a Mockingbird is largely a progressive plot; the reader must complete the book to resolve all the conflicts. The imagery used by the author helps give the experience of reading to Mrs. Dubose a Gothic air. Jem states that the inside of Mrs. However, in this case, the fear centers around Mrs. Lula: contentious member of First Purchase A. The focus shifts from the ghosts and superstitions associated with the Radleys to Tom Robinson.
Atticus has to spend time in Montgomery, so the children are left alone with Calpurnia more and more. One Sunday Calpurnia takes the children to church with her. The children find that they are not warmly accepted by all members of the First Purchase African M. The children find similarities—and differences—between the church they normally attend and the church to which Calpurnia takes them. On the way home, the children get to know Calpurnia better.
They begin to regard her as a fine friend and as a real person with a life separate from her life with them.
This chapter has an open ending. The children find Aunt Alexandra sitting in a rocking chair on their porch when they return from church. Discussion and Analysis In Chapter 12 there is a new sense of distance growing between Jem and Scout. They attend church with Calpurnia, and they are surprised at the resistance they meet.
They are accosted by a woman named Lula. They are in a different segment of society. They, not Calpurnia or Tom Robinson, are the outsiders this time. Scout must find this image of women as confusing, when all around her are voices trying to teach her to accept her role as a woman. Helen Robinson has been feeling chastised by the community because of the accusations levelled against her husband.
In this chapter the children discover that Calpurnia leads a double life and uses two languages. She further explains that she must change who she is to keep from aggravating them. With him, life was routine; without him, life was unbearable. This time, however, it is Calpurnia—not Atticus or a school teacher—who instructs Jem and Scout. She takes them to her church, tells them about herself and her education, and advises them on how to get along with others.
Chapter 12 reminds the reader that To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel of maturation Bildungsroman. The lessons the children learn in this chapter help them to grow and mature. In this chapter the children face discrimination at the First Purchase A. They also note the different feelings about Atticus—for instance in the Montgomery paper and in the very church in which Tom Robinson is a member. Helen Robinson also feels the sharp edge of discrimination.
She becomes a resident expert on the people of Maycomb and their ancestors, and she tries to instill in the children an appreciation for their own ancestors. In Chapter 13 Harper Lee continues to employ stylistic devices in her writing. Repetition is used to drive home a point. Dubose, and during the day that the rabid dog came to their street. The line used by Atticus tends to dispel any sense of foreboding on the part of Scout and the reader.
Most readers trust Atticus because they have seen him at work when the rabid dog was in the neighborhood and when he tries to rush the sheriff into action.
Like the children, the reader now believes Atticus will let the children and the reader know when it is time to worry. Forget it. First of all we see it in his lessons to his children. In his own life, this belief leads to his second kind of bravery. Chapter 14 Summary and Analysis Summary The previously serene Finch household is thrown into disarray.
Scout curses Jem and a fight ensues which brings Atticus to separate them. When Scout walks to her bed she steps on something which she believes is a snake. When Jem brings a broom they find that Dill has run away from home and is hiding under her bed. The children convince him to tell Atticus that he has run away. He explains to her why he ran away and how he actually got to the town of Maycomb. Their conversation concludes with speculations as to why Boo has never run away from home.
They decide that he had no place to go. Discussion and Analysis The tension that the Finch family faces because of the Robinson trial is beginning to wear on their nerves and cause conflicts between them. One example is that Scout and Jem feel pitted against each other at times. Another example is that Dill competes with a new father-figure to win the attention of his mother. When Alexandra tries to tell Atticus to fire Calpurnia, once again we see character-against-character conflict.
At one moment he is trying to behave as a responsible adult and cautioning Scout not to worry Atticus. A few minutes later he is fighting with Scout, and Atticus has to come to separate the two. A little later Jem is behaving as a responsible adult by bringing Atticus into the room to show him that Dill is there. Atticus is determined to do what he himself thinks is right despite their opposition.
He sets himself against Maycomb society. In the face of the serious problems, Alexandra continues to worry about more trivial ones and pushes for Scout to assume a more lady-like role and to remember her breeding. Scout, Atticus, and Dill all fail to live up to the expectations of society. In Chapter 14 the reader continues to see the emergence of the maturational novel, especially through the character of Jem.
Scout and Dill, however, continue to possess an air of innocence—which is especially evident when the two lie in bed and discuss where babies come from.
Walter Cunningham: the father of Walter Cunningham and a member of the mob which appears at the jail. Reynolds: the family doctor of the Finch family and most of the people in Maycomb. Summary After numerous calls, much pleading, and a letter, Dill finally receives permission to remain in Maycomb.
A nightmare was upon us. Atticus tells them that he will continue to help Tom and will see that the truth is told in court. At this point the crowd approaches Atticus. Jem breaks the tension by telling him that the phone is ringing. After a quiet Sunday afternoon, Atticus leaves the house.
The three children follow him and find him at the jail, sitting outside with a long extension cord and a light at the end. A mob gathers at the jail just after the children arrive. As the men in the mob move menacingly forward, the children make the presence known. Atticus orders the children to leave, but they refuse. One of the men threatens Jem, and they give Atticus 15 seconds to get the kids out. Scout defuses a tense situation by talking directly to Mr.
Walter Cunningham—a member of the mob—and reminding him of his ties to the Finch family. She reminds him that his son Walter is her classmate. Cunningham orders the mob to get going. After the mob leaves, the Finches and Dill find that Underwood had them covered with his shotgun the whole time.
Discussion and Analysis In this chapter we see what a dangerous position Atticus has put himself in by defying certain social codes. This is especially evident during a confrontation in front of the jail. Atticus refuses to stir. A less violent example of character-against-society conflict occurs when the children want to look out the window at the company. Individual members of the mob must have felt pulled in varying directions. Walter Cunningham clearly faces a conflict of interests in the chapter.
He is a member of the mob, but he is faced with his individuality when Scout singles him out and talks with him. He becomes a leader—not just a member—of the mob. He orders the men to leave and chooses right even though he is in the minority. Repetition is an important device in Chapter Atticus asks the question twice in the chapter. In this chapter we see the bravery of children pitted against the cowardliness of mob members.
Scout and Jem turn out to be the real heroes when they break the tension on two occasions. When the men begin to move ominously toward Atticus, Jem deliberately breaks the tension by telling Atticus that the phone is ringing. Scout breaks the tension when she singles out a member of the mob and talks with him about his child.
Scout shows her bravery when she physically attacks the man who grabs Jem by the collar. Atticus is determined to protect the man he is defending even in the face of a mob; this is bravery. They coast into the carhouse and enter the house without a word. As Scout begins to drift into sleep, she sees Atticus standing in the middle of an empty street pushing up his glasses.
She begins crying, but Jem does not tease her about it. In the courtroom The next morning appetites are very delicate. Alexandra complains that the children were out late the night before, but Atticus says that he is glad that they had come along. When Aunt Alexandra says that Mr. Underwood also. Atticus talks about the fact that the mob is really made of people. Jem, Dill, and Scout stand in their yard after breakfast and watch the steady parade of people going to the trial.
Jem calls their names and tells a bit about each to Dill. None of these characters actually speak except the foot-washers, who hurl Bible verses at Miss Maudie. She throws a verse back in their direction. Miss Maudie smilingly cautions Miss Stephanie to be careful that she does not get a subpoena since she knows so much about the case. Jem explains to the other two about Mr.
Scout finds out that the court appointed Atticus to defend Tom Robinson. When the children find that there are no seats available downstairs in the courthouse, Reverend Sykes invites them upstairs.
The children are able to see everything well from the balcony. Judge Taylor, they find, permits smoking in his courtroom and he munches on a dry cigar himself. When the children get to their seats, the first witness is already on the stand. Heck Tate is speaking. Discussion and Analysis In Chapter 16, all of the tension that was mounting seems to burst, as the day of the trial finally arrives.
This is apparent even between or among the characters. Atticus has tried to be patient and understanding with his sister, but in this chapter he almost gives in to anger. In this chapter we meet several characters who live outside of society because they choose to. Dolphus Raymond is one. Miss Maudie, although she functions comfortably in society, is not afraid to speak her mind when someone tries to criticize her.
When the foot-washing Baptists openly harangue her as they drive by her house, she is quick to respond with their own ammunition—quoting pertinent Biblical passages to them. A more tragic example of people who are outside of society through no power or choice of their own are the children of black and white parents. They are treated worse than even those who occupy the lowest positions in the social structure.
They are ignored and neglected. Jem and Scout find themselves out of their usual social position in this chapter, but comfortably so.
When there is no room for them to sit downstairs in the courtroom, they are welcomed into the balcony where the black people sit. Both literally and metaphorically this gives them a new perspective on the trial.
In Chapter 16 Harper Lee continues to employ stylistic devices in her writing. Repetition is used when Atticus says that Scout made Mr. Characters in the chapter continue to use s Southern dialect. The theme of maturation is evident when Scout asks for coffee, a symbol of maturation. Calpurnia says at first Scout is too little, but she relents and gives her coffee mixed with milk, a symbol of increased maturity. Gilmer: the solicitor.
Robert E. The reader hears Mr. Tate tell about the day he was called to see Mayella. Ewell, the father of the victim allegedly raped by Tom, is also cross-examined. He testifies that he saw Tom raping Mayella. Reverend Sykes wants to send Scout home when Ewell describes certain explicit parts of the alleged rape, but Jem assures him that she does not understand. Scout comments that this shows that Ewell himself could have beaten Mayella and caused the bruises on the right side of her face, but she cautions Jem and the reader not to count their chickens before they are hatched.
Discussion and Analysis This chapter is very tense as witnesses are questioned. The reader senses the conflict and knows a life is at stake. At one point Atticus argues with Mr. The tension increases when Mr. Ewell testifies. He seems to be careful as he speaks so that he will not be caught in a lie. One wonders if he might be wrestling with his conscience, but such a struggle does not openly reveal itself.
Atticus is defending Tom against the white society in Maycomb. Like many Southern towns, they seem to hold white women on a pedestal. To Kill a Mockingbird continues to be a maturational novel. When the testimony becomes explicit, Judge Taylor receives a request that women be cleared from the courtroom, but he decides to delay.
The Reverend Sykes is concerned that Scout should leave also, because she might understand. Scout is still innocent, but she tries to appear more mature than she is.
She tells the Reverend she does indeed understand, but Jem is able to convince the Reverend that she does not; both the children are, therefore, able to stay. In Chapter 17 Harper Lee continues to employ stylistic devices in her writing.
She uses a malapropism to create humor and relieve tension during the courtroom drama. For instance, when Mr. Ewell is asked if he is ambidextrous, he says that he can use one hand as well as the other. Gilmer begins his questioning, Mayella does not answer his questions about the alleged rape. As she finally begins to tell her story of what she says happened, she seems to grow in confidence. When Atticus begins his cross-examination, he is patient and calm with Mayella.
She contradicts this statement by saying that he has never touched a hair on her head. Mayella says she does not know how Tom did it, but he did take advantage of her. Atticus has Tom stand and asks Mayella to identify him. It is then that the full court can see that Tom has a bad arm. Atticus concludes his questioning by asking Mayella if Tom or Mr.
Ewell was the one who beat her. He asks what Mr. Ewell really saw in the window. Mayella does not answer. Finally Mayella says she has something to add.
Mayella seems to see Atticus as her accuser. She claims fear of him in the court. Mayella tries to testify in a convincing manner. It seems evident to the reader that at times Mayella seems to want to tell the truth, but she struggles to keep to her story.
The Ewell family does not really fit into Maycomb society. Mayella is conscious of her lower class background. She feels others are better than she and that they are laughing at her.
She is very insecure. Mayella also brings racial conflicts into her testimony. She is making the conflict white against blacks, rather than truth against falsehood. During the examination by Atticus, Tom tells how he helped Mayella on several occasions. He tells how Mayella hugged him about the waist on the day in question, how Mr.
Ewell appeared on the scene, and how Tom ran in fear. Not a speck. Gilmer cross-examines Tom. During the questioning Tom says that he helped Mayella because he felt sorry for her. Scout believes these words are a mistake. Suddenly Dill begins to cry and Scout leaves with him. Outside the courtroom they see Mr. Raymond, who is also waiting outside the courtroom, overhears Dill and approaches to talk with the children.
Gilmer adopts an air of hostility against Tom to capitalize on the prejudice already felt against him. This hostility is so strong that even Dill, who probably does not understand its source, can sense it.
He breaks into tears and must be taken from the courtroom. In the face of this hostility, Tom attempts to restrain himself and answer the questions properly. Clearly, Tom seems pitted against many members of the white society as he attempts to respond from the witness stand. Reference is made also to the fact that Mayella is a part of the society that others in Maycomb frown upon.
Tom mentions that he feels sorry for her and Scout also makes reference to the fact that Mayella is a member of the lower class and has few friends. The mockingbird theme is very evident in Chapter Tom has not harmed anyone. Although he was being helpful, he has been treated cruelly.
Lee makes use of many stylistic devices to tell her story. Bravery versus cowardice is evident as Atticus and Tom continue to battle for truth and right even though the conclusion seems to be foregone. There is only one reference to Boo Radley and the motif of ghosts and superstitions: a comparison is made between the loneliness of Mayella and that of Arthur. This important theme in Part One has been replaced in Part Two. They find that Atticus is finishing up his summary. Discussion and Analysis In this chapter we see a side of human nature which lies below the social codes that people are taught.
No matter what role people play in society, they are probably similar underneath. Perhaps the rules of society were set up initially to hide these feelings. Atticus reminds the entire courtroom of the evil side of human nature which everyone faces: the tendency to lie, to do immoral things, and to look with desire on others. Atticus tries to appeal to the humanity and morality of the jury when he reminds them to do its duty and return Tom Robinson to his home.
The jury has a difficult decision to make. Many are fighting their consciences as they determine to convict Tom. Mayella goes against the expectations of society with her actions.
Getting ahead is difficult for them; they have to battle society. Others are able to get ahead more easily. In Chapter 20 Atticus uses a statement that he used before; this is an example of repetition. He says on page that the most ridiculous example I can think of is that the people who run public education promote the stupid and idle along with the industrious—because all men are created equal, educators will gravely tell you, the children left behind suffer terrible feelings of inferiority.
Chapter 21 Summary and Analysis Summary Calpurnia comes to the courtroom to tell Atticus that the children are missing. The children go home to eat, but Atticus says that they can return to hear the verdict. Late in the night the jury convicts Tom. Many of the themes which have been explored throughout the novel come together here. We know that the jury is torn as they cast their votes. They have to choose between what they know is right and what society has taught them to believe.
In Chapter 21 the fulfillment of the mockingbird theme comes to pass. Tom is convicted—but because of his color and not of his guilt. Atticus, who has struggled hard to help Tom, loses the case. The feelings that Scout has in waiting for the decision remind her of a cold morning when the mockingbirds were not singing, a foreshadowing of what is to come.
In Chapter 21 Harper Lee continues to employ stylistic devices in her writing. The reader cares what happens to Atticus, Tom, and even to Mayella. Most classics contain this type of characterization. It is the characters that keep classics alive; the plot alone is never sufficient to make a classic. He tells Jem that the thing that happened had happened before and would happen again.
Then he asks not to be disturbed the next morning. On the morning after the trial the Finch family discusses the events of the previous day. Atticus assures the children that there will be an appeal. Atticus wipes his eyes and instructs Calpurnia to tell the friends that times are too hard for them ever to do this again. The children talk with Miss Maudie later in the morning. Miss Stephanie comes over with her questions and her opinions.
Miss Maudie tells her to hush and takes the children inside for cake. She allows Jem to talk about the trial and then gives them some information. Avery waving wildly at them. Dill in unhappy and displeased with himself and his life. He wants to please others and himself but finds it very difficult to do both. He announces that his career plans have changed. He plans to become a clown and laugh at people rather than having them laugh at him.
Truman Capote after whom Dill is modeled, also experienced the laughter of others because he was considered effeminate. When Miss Stephanie and Mr. Although this seating arrangement was harmless and practical for Scout and Jem, it was shocking in the eyes of the community.
In the town of Maycomb racism is a pervasive and poisonous social code. Harper Lee makes use of stylistic devices in Chapter The children, especially, were confused and upset by it. The taunting of Mr.
Avery and Miss Stephanie only made it more difficult for them. However, when Miss Maudie speaks to them, she tries to teach them a new way to look at the situation. She shows them the subtle ways in which people broke the rules of society in order to help Tom Robinson. She also reinforces once again the strength and bravery of Atticus. Compared to him, Miss Stephanie and Mr.
Although some examples of people operating against the expectations society holds for them result in good behavior, Robert Ewell represents the opposite extreme. He lives, literally and figuratively, outside of the community. He seems to represent basest instincts of humanity and acts as a malevolent force when he threatens Atticus.
It becomes clear that he considers himself outside the law as well. Atticus talks with them about the jury system in Maycomb. He also shares his philosophy of the kinds of folks there are in the world. Discussion and Analysis Chapter 23 shows Scout and Jem trying to figure out the intricate construction of the community that they have been learning so much about lately.
The lesson Scout receives in this chapter proves to be extremely upsetting to her. Alexandra refuses to allow her to invite Walter Cunningham to their home. Bob Ewell responds by making crude and raving threats to Atticus, which Atticus receives with his usual grace and gentility.
In Chapter 23 Harper Lee continues to employ stylistic devices in her writing. Bob Ewell. For example, Mr. All of the drama and turmoil associated with the trial have given the children a new perspective on Boo Radley.
Perkins, and Mrs. Aunt Alexandra has asked Calpurnia and Scout to help with serving at the event. Scout becomes the butt of two jokes. When Scout then asks Mrs.
Merriweather about the topic of the meeting, the focus is drawn from Scout for a while. She begins to tell about J. Grimes Everett and his ministry to the Mrunas. Aunt Alexandra has asked Calpurnia and Scout to help with serving at the missionary cirlce meeting.
The topic of conversation moves to Tom Robinson and his family. Farrow says that she has shared that information with Mr. Hutson and he agrees with her. Maybe it helped you rediscover the beauty in life.
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Hello, Login. Survival Math by Mitchell S. Dapper Dan by Daniel R. Beloved by Toni Morrison. Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson.
A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. Three Women by Lisa Taddeo. Nikita unharnesses the horse and decides to hunker down for the night. He mounts the horse and goes off into the blizzard. Nikita, too tired to go with Vasili allows sleep to overcome him, all with the thought that it will be his death. Vasili stumbles about in the blizzard, the horse escapes from under him, so that now he is horseless and lost. In a panic he circles about and finds where he started, the sled with Nikita.
He finds Nikita near death and he realizes it has all been his fault. In this position Vasili has a dream of someone calling him.
In the morning we find that it is Nikita who is alive and Vasili who has died. The peasants rescue Nikita. Tolstoy sets the story at a time when serfdom was abolished in Russia. From Wikipedia:. In Alexander II freed all serfs in a major agrarian reform, stimulated in part by his view that "it is better to liberate the peasants from above" than to wait until they won their freedom by risings "from below".
Serfdom was abolished in , but its abolition was achieved on terms not always favorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. Between to serfdom was abolished in Georgia.
In Kalmykia serfdom was only abolished in Though Nikita, the peasant, is no longer a serf, he has lived as a dependent serf for most of his life. Not only is he indebted to Vasili, but Nikita has a psychological and relational mentality of a subordinate.
And with that comes a responsibility for Vasili to protect and care for Nikita. Now that the serfs are free, will Vasili still feel this obligation? To some degree he does. I'm not like others to keep you waiting, and making up accounts and reckoning fines. We deal straight-forwardly. You serve me and I don't neglect you. And when saying this Vasili Andreevich was honestly convinced that he was Nikita's benefactor, and he knew how to put it so plausibly that all those who depended on him for their money, beginning with Nikita, confirmed him in the conviction that he was their benefactor and did not overreach them.
You know that I serve you and take as much pains as I would for my own father. I understand very well! He was quite aware that Vasili Andreevich was cheating him, but at the same time he felt that it was useless to try to clear up his accounts with him or explain his side of the matter, and that as long as he had nowhere to go he must accept what he could get.
This master and servant relationship cannot be minimized. You know that I serve you. Does Vasili really take care of Nikita? Yes, but he also cheats him. This hierarchy is further established in that Nikita is also a master, not of a people but of the domestic animals. Also from the first chapter we see Nikita hitching up the horse. Now, having heard his master's order to harness, he went as usual cheerfully and willingly to the shed, stepping briskly and easily on his rather turned-in feet; took down from a nail the heavy tasselled leather bridle, and jingling the rings of the bit went to the closed stable where the horse he was to harness was standing by himself.
Let me water you first,' he went on, speaking to the horse just as to someone who understood the words he was using, and having whisked the dusty, grooved back of the well-fed young stallion with the skirt of his coat, he put a bridle on his handsome head, straightened his ears and forelock, and having taken off his halter led him out to water.
Picking his way out of the dung-strewn stable, Mukhorty frisked, and making play with his hind leg pretended that he meant to kick Nikita, who was running at a trot beside him to the pump. After a drink of the cold water the horse sighed, moving his strong wet lips, from the hairs of which transparent drops fell into the trough; then standing still as if in thought, he suddenly gave a loud snort.
But don't go asking for any later,' said Nikita quite seriously and fully explaining his conduct to Mukhorty. Then he ran back to the shed pulling the playful young horse, who wanted to gambol all over the yard, by the rein.
The horse Mukhorty is there throughout the story as they lose their way through the blizzard. Nikita is his master, also with an obligation for his wellbeing. Notice the contrast in personality. For Vasili it is a social obligation, and only that. There is no love or benevolence in it. Nikita is tender and kind even to the domesticated beasts. He speaks to the horse as if they are equals. Vasili on the other hand speaks to Nikita in the language of exchange, of commerce.
I have to say that Merle Haggard , who passed away on April 6 th , was my favorite country musician. The LA Times had a really fine obituary :. Through it all, the songs still flowed. Over decades of trouble, fame, and more trouble, Merle Haggard never stopped making up songs. The country-music star seemed afflicted with a song-writing compulsion, much as Woody Guthrie was.
He penned his first ballads as a child. By later life, he claimed to have written 10, of them. He composed wherever he went, all day long. He was inspired by snippets of conversation, flashes of memory. He drew lyrics from a flower, from the view out a bus window. Even after Haggard's fame dimmed, and audiences shrank, he kept writing, kept singing. The musician, who sang of his law-breaking Bakersfield youth and whose natural, storytelling lyrics won him a vast following — more than of his songs made the Billboard charts — died Wednesday — his birthday — at his home near Redding.
He was He was homespun, yes, but he had already been in jail. I do love his counter the counter culture songs. Those certainly endeared him to conservatives. Basically he was American, with all our warts and petulances. From the La Times:. His biggest years stretched from the late s to the early s, during which he once had nine consecutive country No.
But Haggard's inborn, relentless creativity never flagged. But patriotic pride and political songs made up only a portion of the vast and diverse Haggard portfolio, which included autobiographical laments, odes to working men and women, drinking songs and love songs. In life Haggard was by no means the clean-cut square of the Muskogee song, about which he expressed mixed feelings though after a hiatus, he eventually resumed singing it.
He had grown up a troublemaker — a teenage runaway who rode the rails and turned petty criminal. Sent to prison after a botched burglary attempt, he was among the inmates who watched [Johnny] Cash perform at San Quentin in The experience famously helped turn his life around.
But it didn't exactly straighten him out. Drugs, divorce and bankruptcy dogged his path, long after success came his way. In later years he would consider himself more of a Democrat than Conservative.
And when you look at his youth, you can understand why. His father died when he was a boy and experienced a good deal of the poorer side of life.
Again from the obituary:. His parents were Dust Bowl refugees from Oklahoma who set up house in a converted boxcar. But Haggard fared better than many fellow migrants because his father had regular work with the railroads. Haggard described his mother as socially ambitious. His early life contains a telling hint of middle-class aspiration: He took violin lessons as a child. Later, he would play an able fiddle. Otherwise, young Haggard claimed that he was not encouraged in music.
He had always composed, he said. He described his childhood self staring out of classroom windows, making up songs. After his father died suddenly when he was 9, Haggard ran away. He jumped on freight cars, and spent time in a home for delinquent boys. By 13, he was singing in bars. By 17, he had married a waitress, Leona Hobbs. But he was in jail for auto theft at the birth of their child, the first of four.
Then Haggard broke into a bar, wound up in jail and tried to escape, and in was sentenced to six to 15 years in San Quentin, where Cash's performance prompted him to form a prison band. This real-life narrative would become a classic trope of country music. Why is he my favorite country musician? He could play the guitar really well, he understood song writing completely and perfected it, and he was a wonderful story teller. Country music story telling can be outrageous and over the top.
They all seem real to me.