The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (/ ɒ z /) is an American children's novel written by author L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. W. Denslow, originally published by the George M. Hill Company in May It has since seen several reprints, most often under the title The Wizard of Oz, which is the title of the popular Broadway musical adaptation as well as the iconic live-action karacto.xyz: L. Frank Baum. "A Venetian Grandmother" p. -- Summary: An introduction by Pratt which attempts to familiarize the reader with Jewish Venice before and between the world wars, and shows photographs of the carved stone symbols and figures that appear in the story. Chapter 1: "The Lodge of Hermes" p. -- Summary: While pretending to escape pursuers, Corto Maltese falls through the ceiling of a. Comics will salute essential workers by hiding symbols in their. And now let us recall the "Fable of the Shoes." Weatherford CEO exits as struggling company faces 'Chapter 22 bankruptcy' 2.
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I'm the werewolf Sleeveless Top. They ask the Tin Woodman to become their ruler, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas. Dorothy finds the witch's Golden Cap and summons the Winged Monkeys to carry her and her friends back to the Emerald City. The King of the Winged Monkeys tells how he and his band are bound by an enchantment to the cap by the sorceress Gayelette from the North, and that Dorothy may use it to summon them two more times.
When Dorothy and her friends meet the Wizard of Oz again, Toto tips over a screen in a corner of the throne room that reveals the Wizard. He sadly explains he is a humbug—an ordinary old man who, by a hot air balloon, came to Oz long ago from Omaha. He provides the Scarecrow with a head full of bran, pins, and needles "a lot of bran-new brains" , the Tin Woodman with a silk heart stuffed with sawdust, and the Cowardly Lion a potion of "courage".
Their faith in his power gives these items a focus for their desires. He decides to take Dorothy and Toto home and then go back to Omaha in his balloon. At the send-off, he appoints the Scarecrow to rule in his stead, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas.
Toto chases a kitten in the crowd and Dorothy goes after him, but the ropes holding the balloon break and the Wizard floats away. Dorothy summons the Winged Monkeys and tells them to carry her and Toto home, but they explain they can't cross the desert surrounding Oz.
The Soldier with the Green Whiskers informs Dorothy that Glinda, the Good Witch of the South may be able to help her return home, so the travelers begin their journey to see Glinda's castle in Quadling Country. On the way, the Lion kills a giant spider who is terrorizing the animals in a forest. They ask him to become their king, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas.
Dorothy summons the Winged Monkeys a third time to fly them over a hill to Glinda's castle. Glinda greets them and reveals that Dorothy's silver shoes can take her anywhere she wishes to go.
She embraces her friends, all of whom will be returned to their new kingdoms through Glinda's three uses of the Golden Cap: the Scarecrow to the Emerald City, the Tin Woodman to Winkie Country, and the Lion to the forest; after which the cap will be given to the King of the Winged Monkeys, freeing him and his band. Dorothy takes Toto in her arms, knocks her heels together three times, and wishes to return home. Instantly, she begins whirling through the air and rolling on the grass of the Kansas prairie, up to the farmhouse, though the silver shoes fall off her feet en route and are lost in the Deadly Desert.
She runs to Aunt Em, saying "I'm so glad to be home again! The book was illustrated by Baum's friend and collaborator W. Denslow , who also co-held the copyright. The design was lavish for the time, with illustrations on many pages, backgrounds in different colors, and several color plate illustrations. The editorial opined that had it not been for Denslow's pictures, the readers would be unable to picture precisely the figures of Dorothy, Toto, and the other characters.
The distinctive look led to imitators at the time, most notably Eva Katherine Gibson's Zauberlinda, the Wise Witch , which mimicked both the typography and the illustration design of Oz. Denslow's illustrations were so well known that merchants of many products obtained permission to use them to promote their wares.
Costume jewelry, mechanical toys, and soap were also designed using their figures. A new edition of the book appeared in , with illustrations by Evelyn Copelman.
Baum acknowledged the influence of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen , which he was deliberately revising in his "American fairy tales" to include the wonder without the horrors. Local legend has it that Oz, also known as The Emerald City, was inspired by a prominent castle-like building in the community of Castle Park near Holland, Michigan , where Baum lived during the summer.
The yellow brick road was derived from a road at that time paved by yellow bricks, located in Peekskill, New York , where Baum attended the Peekskill Military Academy. Baum was a frequent guest at the hotel and had written several of the Oz books there.
Some critics have suggested that Baum may have been inspired by Australia , a relatively new country at the time of the book's original publication. Australia is often colloquially spelled or referred to as "Oz".
Furthermore, in Ozma of Oz , Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are traveling by ship to Australia. Like Australia, Oz is an island continent somewhere to the west of California with inhabited regions bordering on a great desert. One might imagine that Baum intended Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert.
Carroll rejected the Victorian-era ideology that children's books should be saturated with morals , instead believing that children should be allowed to be children. Building on Carroll's style of numerous images accompanying the text, Baum combined the conventional features of a fairy tale witches and wizards with the well-known things in his readers' lives scarecrows and cornfields. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is considered by some to be the first American fairy tale because of its references to clear American locations such as Kansas and Omaha.
Baum agreed with authors such as Carroll that fantasy literature was important for children, along with numerous illustrations, but he also wanted to create a story that had recognizable American elements in it, such as farming and industrialization.
Stories such as " Rip Van Winkle ", published in , and " The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ", published in , predate the Oz tales by several decades. Many of the characters, props, and ideas in the novel were drawn from Baum's experiences. As a child, Baum frequently had nightmares of a scarecrow pursuing him across a field. Moments before the scarecrow's "ragged hay fingers" nearly gripped his neck, it would fall apart before his eyes. Decades later, as an adult, Baum integrated his tormentor into the novel as the Scarecrow.
He wished to make something captivating for the window displays, so he used an eclectic assortment of scraps to craft a striking figure. From a washboiler he made a body, from bolted stovepipes he made arms and legs, and from the bottom of a saucepan he made a face. Baum then placed a funnel hat on the figure, which ultimately became the Tin Woodman. Rockefeller was the nemesis of Baum's father, an oil baron who declined to purchase Standard Oil shares in exchange for selling his own oil refinery.
Baum scholar Evan I. Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard's numerous faces. In one scene in the novel, the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical, hairless head".
When Rockefeller was 54 years old, the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head, making people fearful of speaking to him. In the early s, Baum's play Matches was being performed when a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters", causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames.
Scholar Evan I. Schwartz suggested that this might have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of. A lighted match. In , Baum lived in Aberdeen, Dakota Territory , which was experiencing a drought, and he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer  about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses, causing them to believe that the wood chips that they were eating were pieces of grass.
Similarly, the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe that their city was built from emeralds. During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen, the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. However, the West, instead of being a wonderland, turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression.
In , Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. At that time, Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless, Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz". In many respects, Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time.
The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers, as do the Winkies she later meets. Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage. The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, , from "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine. Bossed around by his wife Matilda , Henry rarely dissented with her.
He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke". The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum. Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means.
Baum held different jobs, moved a lot, and was exposed to many people, so the inspiration for the story could have been taken from many different aspects of his life.
Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life. The original illustrator of the novel, W. Denslow , could also have influenced the story and the way it has been interpreted. Baum and Denslow had a close working relationship and worked together to create the presentation of the story through the images and the text.
Color is an important element of the story and is present throughout the images, with each chapter having a different color representation. Denslow also added characteristics to his drawings that Baum never described. For example, Denslow drew a house and the gates of the Emerald City with faces on them.
In the later Oz books, John R. Neill , who illustrated all of the sequels, continued to include these faces on gates. One of the earliest illustrators not to include a funnel hat was Russell H. Schulz in the Whitman Publishing edition--Schulz depicted him wearing a pot on his head. Libico Maraja 's illustrations, which first appeared in a Italian edition and have also appeared in English-language and other editions, are well known for depicting him bareheaded.
Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory, and for 60 years after the book's publication "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation. Then, in a American Quarterly article entitled "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism",  the American teacher Henry Littlefield posited that the book contained an allegory of the late 19th-century bimetallism debate regarding monetary policy.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has become an established part of multiple cultures, spreading from its early young American readership to becoming known throughout the world. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a horse.
The film adaptation has become a classic of popular culture, shown annually on American television from to and then several times a year every year beginning in There were several Hebrew translations published in Israel. Thus, for Hebrew readers, this translators' choice added a layer of Biblical connotations absent from the English original.
The New York Times , September 8, . The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet. The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text. During the first 50 years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ' s publication in , it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature.
According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies , the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work. The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit. It has frequently come under fire over the years. In , the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of his day, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level".
Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".
In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit. The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom. Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate".
The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years. Usually, I'm not interested in modern AUs at all Of course, her father had not wanted to tell her, especially not on this particular day, but Sansa was not blind. She had seen her parents' faces turn cavernous and tense over the last weeks, all light of happiness gone from their eyes. So Sansa had asked. Before her coming of age, her parents had evaded her questions and as a dutiful daughter, she had acquiesced to their wish.
But now, she was an adult, and she had emphasized this fact until her father had given in with a strained sigh. At the moment, it looks as if we have to file for bankruptcy next month.
The news had been like a punch right in to her stomach. Oh, she didn't fear much for herself. Her studies at university were going well, and ever since Tyrion Lannister was Hand Chancellor, tuition fees had been abolished.
For a moment, she grimaced when her thoughts meandered from Tyrion Lannister to the man's sadist and deranged nephew Joffrey, whom she had dated a while ago - until she had learned of the young man's dark side. Quickly, Sansa's mind pushed back those squirmy memories and returned to the present.
He had not wanted to become the CEO of Stark Enterprises and had always pointed out that his dead brother Brandon had been better suited for this job - but Eddard Stark had lived and breathed for his business and his employees nevertheless.
Bankruptcy wouldn't just mean a financial crisis for her family; Sansa knew her father would also see it as a personal failure. After all, he's father's public relations manager. All the world is his brother. He might have an idea. As it turned out, Petyr Baelish actually had a clear stance on the matter when Sansa sought him out in his office.
But I'm not into social dumping. As a consequence, the Iron Bank doesn't want to cooperate with your father anymore. Next, he opened a box with mint candy, took a pastille, and offered her one, too. She declined, shaking her head. The biggest Westerosi investor is Lord Lannister in the West. Sweet Mother, that's the coldest fish in the pond," Sansa thought. She remembered how even the Baratheons and Lannisters in King's Landing had only ever spoken of the man with a warbled mix of fear, disgust, respect, and hatred.
She spoke: "Sadly, I've never met him, so I don't see a chance to make him inclined to support Stark Enterprises. He explained, looking into the distance: "The point is that he's the man with the fattest purse and the highest economical - and social - standing. He's actually the only one who could still prevent bankruptcy.
Her father's public relations manager said: "As it is, I've got an idea. There's something you can do, Sansa dear. It's a well-kept secret, but I happen to know that Lord Lannister occasionally books a discrete woman at Chataya's escort service to take care of his intimate needs. Chataya still owes me a favour. I could orchestrate a meeting between you and the old lion at the Rock when he's in need of distraction the next time. You'll seduce and entertain him, and he'll help your father in exchange.
He's in favour of classy women.