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Joseph Brodsky (Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky) (24 May - 28 January ). Alyssa Dinega Gillespie University of Notre Dame. Interviews. Bibliographies. Biographies. References. Papers. Nobel Prize in Literature Presentation Speech. Brodsky: Banquet Speech. Press Release: The Nobel Prize in Literature Brodsky: Nobel Lecture, 8 December Share arizona bankruptcy pacer login michael savage uk bankruptcy EDS for electronic bidding in Ivanovo ag feed bankruptcy filing vanderhoffs family of 23 bankruptcy bankruptcy lawyers in pleasanton ca miller the driller bankruptcy chapter 13 bankruptcy trustee madison truyen kenichi chap 20 bankruptcy stephen jones capmark finance inc bankruptcy middle school ipad classroom rules bankruptcy. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. EDS for bidding Ivanovo

A decree by the Central Executive Committee made war communism , under which all industry and food distribution was nationalized, the economic policy of the Soviet state. Makhno declared his opposition to the Hetmanate regime by some operations in the southeastern Ukraine. The legislative power was transferred from the Sovnarkom to the Central Executive Committee , which also received the power to pass constitutional amendments.

Nicholas and the rest of the royal family were executed on direct orders from Lenin. Red Terror : Izvestia called on the Russian people to "crush the hydra of counterrevolution with massive terror.

Makhnovists established an anarchist society run by peasants and workers in Ukraine, in the territory of Berdyansk , Donetsk , Alexandrovsk and Yekaterinoslav. World War I : An armistice treaty was signed, ending the war. Two Latvian political parties founded a provisional legislature, the Tautas Padome. A military coup overthrew the Ufa Directorate and established its war minister, Aleksandr Kolchak , as dictator.

The Communist Party of Lithuania established a revolutionary government in Vilnius. The Red Army occupied Vilnius , the Lithuanian capital, in support of the local Communist government. The Orgburo was established to oversee the membership and organization of the Communist Party. The First Congress of the Comintern began in Moscow. Kun dismissed the president and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Hungarian occupiers established the Slovak Soviet Republic.

The Czechoslovak army reoccupied its territory and dissolved the Slovak Soviet Republic. Threatened by the approach of the Romanian army, Kun fled to Austria. The Romanian army left the Hungarian capital, Budapest.

An insurgency in the Khanate of Khiva forced the abdication of the Khan. Russian Civil War : Kolchak was executed by a Bolshevik military tribunal. The insurgents disarmed the 10,strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole.

The Soviet Union recognized Lithuanian independence. Soviet Russia renounced all claims on Latvian territory. Battle of Warsaw : The battle began with a Russian attack across the Vistula. Makhno's Black Army suddenly turned from south to east, attacking the main forces of General Denikin's army. The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was established. Russian Civil War : Wrangel fled Russia. The Eleventh Army entered Armenia.

The Armenian Prime Minister ceded control of the country to the invading Communists. Gosplan , the economic planning committee of the Soviet Union, was created by a decree of the Sovnarkom.

Kronstadt rebellion : The crews of the battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol , harbored at Kronstadt , published a list of demands on the government. Kronstadt rebellion : After over a week of fighting, government troops pacified Kronstadt. Russian famine of : The writer Maxim Gorky brought world attention to the looming famine. Nestor Makhno 's headquarters staff and several Black Army subordinate commanders were arrested and executed on the spot by a Red Army firing squad: the Makhnovist treaty delegation, still in Kharkiv , was also arrested and liquidated.

Makhno's Black Army forces were defeated and dispersed by Red Army. Russian famine of : A decree published in Izvestia authorized the seizure of church valuables for famine relief. Tikhon , the Patriarch of Moscow, was put under house arrest. Basmachi Revolt : Enver Pasha was killed in Turkestan. A council of the pro-government Living Church declared Tikhon an apostate and abolished the Patriarchate. The Declaration of 46 was written. The Declaration echoed earlier concerns expressed by Leon Trotsky , the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council , that the Communist Party was insufficiently democratic.

The Soviet Constitution came into effect. The Mongolian People's Republic was established. Trotsky was forced to resign his military offices. Tikhon died. The Communist government would not allow elections to the patriarchate to be held; Metropolitan Peter of Krutitsy became the Patriarchal locum tenens according to his will. Peter of Krutitsy was arrested. Sergius of Nizhny Novgorod , whom he had named to succeed him, took the title of Deputy Patriarchal locum tenens.

Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo. Sergius affirmed the loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet government. Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party. Shakhty Trial : Police arrested a group of engineers in the town of Shakhty and accused them of conspiring to sabotage the Soviet economy. First five-year plan : Stalin announced the beginning of state industrialisation of the Soviet economy.

Bukharin was expelled from the Politburo. Holodomor : Police were instructed to prevent Ukrainian peasants from leaving their homes in search of food. Kirov was murdered by Leonid Nikolaev , possibly at the behest of Stalin. Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov was reported to have mined over one hundred tons of coal in a single shift, sowing the seeds of the Stakhanovite movement. The Stalin Constitution came into effect. Moscow Trials : The Second Trial ended.

Of seventeen defendants, all but four were sentenced to death. The order established a new judicial method, the NKVD troika , and set nationwide quotas for the execution and enslavement of "anti-Soviet elements. Peter of Krutitsy was executed in solitary confinement. The Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact was signed, promising mutual non-aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and agreeing to a division of much of Europe between those two countries. Winter War : The Soviet army attacked Finland.

Katyn massacre : The Politburo signed an order to execute 27, imprisoned Polish nationals. The Red Army occupied Estonia and Latvia. Soviet occupation of Bessarabia : Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union. Operation Barbarossa : The Germans captured Minsk. Siege of Leningrad : The German army cut the last land tie to Leningrad.

Operation Barbarossa : Kiev fell to the Germans. Battle of Moscow : Three German armies began an advance on Moscow. Battle of Moscow : The Soviet army launched a counterattack from Kalinin. Battle of Moscow : The Soviet counteroffensive ended between sixty and one-hundred fifty miles from Moscow. Operation Uranus : The Soviet army began a pincer movement against the German forces besieging Stalingrad.

Operation Spark : The Soviet army launched a military offensive to break the Siege of Leningrad. The Comintern was dissolved. Stalin allowed a church council, which unanimously elected Sergius to the Patriarchate of Moscow. The Red Army crossed into Poland. Siege of Leningrad : The last German forces were expelled from the city. Sergius died. The Communist Lublin Government of Poland was established.

Warsaw Uprising : Stalin denied the Allies use of his landing strips to supply aid to the insurgents. Michael I of Romania led a coup against the military dictatorship of Ion Antonescu. Romania signed an armistice with the Allies , placing itself under the command of an Allied Commission led by Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky.

Continuation War : The Moscow Armistice was signed, ending the war at roughly the prewar borders. Soviet and Czechoslovak partisan armed forces entered German -occupied Czechoslovakia. Alexius I was elected Patriarch of Moscow. Battle of Berlin : The Soviet army began shelling Berlin. The Potsdam Agreement moved Poland's borders to the west and established the shape of occupied Germany. Invasion of Manchuria : Soviet armed forces landed on Sakhalin. Invasion of Manchuria : Soviet amphibious forces landed in Korea.

Iran crisis : British troops withdrew from Iran. The Soviet Union violated its prior agreement and remained. Iran regained control over the territory of the Azerbaijan People's Government. Iran conquered Mahabad. The Hungarian Communist Party won a plurality of seats in elections to the Hungarian legislature. The Cominform was established in order to coordinate Communist parties under Soviet control.

King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate. Non- Communist ministers resigned from the Czechoslovakian parliament in order to force an election. A new Romanian constitution declared Romania a People's Republic. Berlin Blockade : The commander of the American occupation zone ordered an airlift of supplies into West Berlin. Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established. A new Communist constitution came into force in Hungary.

Joe 1 : The Soviet atomic bomb project culminated in a successful test detonation. Korean War : The North Korean army launched a , man surprise assault across the 38th parallel. An article in Pravda accused some of the nation's most prominent doctors — particularly Jews — of participating in a vast conspiracy to poison top Soviet leaders.

Khrushchev became First Secretary. The Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party officially acquitted those arrested in connection with the so-called " doctors' plot ". Uprising of in East Germany : In response to a 10 percent increase in work quotas, between 60 and 80 construction workers went on strike in East Berlin. Their numbers quickly swelled and a general strike and protests were called for the next day. Uprising of in East Germany : , protestors gathered at dawn, demanding the reinstatement of old work quotas and, later, the resignation of the East German government.

At noon German police trapped many of the demonstrators in an open square; Soviet tanks fired on the crowd, killing hundreds and ending the protest.

Beria was arrested at a special meeting of the Presidium. Khrushchev was confirmed as head of the Central Committee. Kengir Uprising : Prisoners at a Gulag adjacent to the Kazakh village of Kengir occupied the camp's service yard. Kengir Uprising : The prison camp at Kengir was invaded and subdued by Soviet troops and tanks.

Geneva Conference : The signing of the Geneva Accords promised a complete French withdrawal, partitioned Vietnam into a Communist North and a monarchist South , and scheduled unifying elections for July Khrushchev and Tito issued the Belgrade declaration , which declared that "different forms of Socialist development are solely the concern of the individual countries.

Ho Chi Minh visited Moscow and agreed to accept Soviet aid. The speech weakened the hand of the Stalinists in the Soviet government. At least 74 civilians were killed. The protestors marched on Parliament; when they were fired on by the Hungarian Security Police , they turned violent and began to arm themselves.

The Presidium reversed its vote under pressure from Khrushchev and the defense minister and deferred the decision to a later meeting of the full Central Committee. Khrushchev replaced Bulganin as Premier of the Soviet Union. Sino-Soviet Split : Moscow recalled thousands of Soviet advisers from China and ended economic and military aid.

Bay of Pigs Invasion : After a U. As the invasion faltered, President John F. Kennedy called off the airstrikes. Bay of Pigs Invasion : Castro announced that all the invaders had been defeated.

In a nationally broadcast speech, Castro declared he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism. Novocherkassk massacre : Soviet workers gathered in the town square of Novocherkassk to protest an increase in food prices and work quotas.

Shots were fired at the rioters, killing 25 and injuring 87 people. Cuban Missile Crisis : President Kennedy is shown aerial photos from U-2 surveillance flights showing missile bases in Cuba. The thirteen days marking the most dangerous period of the Cuban Missile Crisis begin.

Cuban Missile Crisis : Kennedy announced that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union, and that the island would be placed under " quarantine " to prevent further weapons shipments. Cuban Missile Crisis : Khrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of the Soviet missiles in Cuba. Khrushchev 's rivals in the party deposed him at a Central Committee meeting.

Sino-Soviet split : The Chinese government announced that it could no longer guarantee the safety of Soviet diplomats outside the embassy building. The Soviet Union severed diplomatic relations with Israel. This document guaranteed a number of new freedoms including free speech , travel , debate and association.

They agreed to the presence of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia. Somali military and police occupied the capital of Mogadishu. The Supreme Revolutionary Council was established as the new government, with the Marxist revolutionary Siad Barre at its head. Vietnam War : The Paris Peace Accords pledged the signatory parties to " respect the independence, sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of Vietnam as recognized by the Geneva Agreements on Vietnam, " and promised a complete withdrawal of United States forces from Vietnam and Laos.

The Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the Somali government. Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown by a council of military officers, the Derg. The Derg declared that socialism was the new ideology of the Ethiopian state.

The Pathet Lao began a military offensive against the Laotian government. Party leader Samora Machel , a Marxist , became the nation's first president. The king of Laos abdicated the throne, leaving leadership of the country to the Communist Pathet Lao. Ogaden War : Barre cancelled the Somali -Soviet treaty of friendship.

A rebellion against the new Afghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan. A treaty was signed that permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Afghan government's request. Taraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin.

Operation Storm : Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul , including the Tajbeg Presidential Palace , and executed Prime Minister Amin. Andrei Sakharov is exiled without charges to the closed industrial city of Gorki for opposing the invasion of Afghanistan.

The United States announces its planned boycott of the Moscow Olympics because of the invasion of Afghanistan. The trade union Solidarity was founded in Poland. In response to the growing influence of Solidarity , Wojciech Jaruzelski , the First Secretary of the Communist Party , declared martial law in Poland , under indirect threat of Soviet intervention. The Grenadian military overthrew the government of Maurice Bishop and installed the pro-Soviet Stalinist Bernard Coard to lead the nation.

Andropov died after a lengthy kidney disease and was succeeded as General Secretary by Konstantin Chernenko. Chernenko announces a Soviet-bloc boycott of the Los Angeles -held Summer Olympics, citing security concerns for its athletes.

Chernenko died of emphysema. Soviet—Afghan War : The Soviet government signed the Geneva Accords , which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces. A strike at the V. Partially-free elections were held to the Polish parliament , resulting in a landslide Solidarity victory.

Singing Revolution : Two million people joined hands to form the Baltic Way across Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania to demonstrate for independence. The Hungarian parliament declared their country a republic. The East German government loosened restrictions on travel into the West , effecting the end of the Berlin Wall. Velvet Revolution : An anti- Communist protest in Czechoslovakia was ended violently by the police.

Velvet Revolution : The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced the end of its monopoly on political power. The Bulgarian Communist Party repealed its constitutional supremacy. Singing Revolution : Elections to the Latvian Supreme Soviet gave the majority of seats to a pro-independence coalition, led by the Popular Front of Latvia. January Events : Soviet troops violently seized important buildings in cities throughout Lithuania. Soviet Union referendum, Soviet coup attempt of : A group of high-ranking officials calling themselves the State Emergency Committee announced that Gennady Yanayev was to replace Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union.

Singing Revolution : The Estonian government declared its independence. Singing Revolution : The government of Latvia declared its independence. Soviet coup attempt of : The military refused State Emergency Committee orders to take the capital. The leaders of the coup were arrested. The Ukrainian parliament adopted the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine.

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan declared independence. A national referendum confirmed the Dudaev presidency. Dudaev unilaterally declared the independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. The Supreme Soviet confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Russian constitutional crisis of : Yeltsin announced the dissolution of the Russian legislature. The legislature, in turn, responded by impeaching Yeltsin and declaring Aleksandr Rutskoy the new President of the Russian Federation.

Russian constitutional crisis of : The army occupied the parliament building and arrested a number of its leaders. Russian constitutional crisis of : A new 5th Russian constitution was approved by referendum, vastly increasing the power of the presidency. First Chechen War : Russian troops invaded Chechnya. Dagestan War : A Chechnya -based militia invaded the Russian republic of Dagestan in support of local separatists.

Dagestan War : The militias began their retreat back into Chechnya. Russian apartment bombings : A car bomb outside of an apartment building in Buynaksk killed sixty-four people. Second Chechen War : Russian ground troops invaded Chechnya. The treaty of creation of the Union of Russia and Belarus was signed. Boris Yeltsin resigned as President of the Russian Federation. Prime Minister Putin became acting president. Moscow theater hostage crisis : Chechen rebels seized the House of Culture theater in Moscow, taking approximately theatergoers hostage, and demanded an immediate Russian withdrawal from Chechnya.

Moscow theater hostage crisis : The police pumped anesthetic into the building, then stormed it from every entrance, executing all 42 terrorists. Russia—Belarus energy dispute. Russian aircraft bombings. Beslan school hostage crisis : A group of Chechen terrorists took adults and children hostage at School Number One in Beslan.

Beslan school hostage crisis : At one in the afternoon, following the sound of explosions, Russian police and soldiers stormed the school.

The ensuing battle left civilians, 31 of 32 hostage-takers and 10 police dead. October Nalchik attack : A large group of terrorists assaulted and captured buildings throughout the city of Nalchik.

By afternoon Russian soldiers surrounded and entered the city, forcing their enemies to retreat. Some people were killed. Boris Yeltsin died of congestive heart failure. A very important step in the preparations for the insurrection took place October November , when the MRC assigned its own commissars to the Peter and Paul Fortress, the military units, the naval vessels, the munitions depots, and a number of factories and other key points in the capital.

The military command staff brought forces loyal to it close to Petrograd and carried out a mobilization of counterrevolutionary forces in the capital and the suburbs.

The cadets from Peterhof and Oranienbaum were called to Petrograd, the special alert order was given to the three Cossack regiments quartered in Petrograd, and all the cadet academies were placed on military alert. The garrison of the Winter Palace was increased to 2, Orders were sent to the supreme headquarters in Mogilev and the command headquarters of the Northern Front in Pskov to expedite the movement of troops toward the capital.

However, the Bolsheviks had created an overwhelming superiority of revolutionary forces over those of the counterrevolution. The position of the Provisional Government was hopeless. The armed insurrection began on October 24 November 6.

On instructions from the Central Committee, the MRC sent soldiers of the Lithuanian regiment and a sapper battalion to the print shop. These forces repulsed the cadets and the printing of the paper was resumed. Red Guard units of about 1. Cannon, machine guns, and armored cars were placed around the building.

Revolutionary units blocked off the Pavel, Nikolai, Vladimir, and Konstantin cadet academies. Telegrams were sent from the Central Committee and the MRC to Kronstadt and the Tsentrobalt calling on naval vessels of the Baltic Fleet to bring an expeditionary force.

The order was carried out. The situation called for decisive and offensive action by the revolutionary forces. However, some members of the MRC were still sluggish about moving ahead to attack the main centers of the counterrevolution—the headquarters of the Petrograd military district, the Winter Palace, and so forth. Some of them wanted to postpone the seizure of power until the Second Congress of Soviets had convened the evening of October The influence of the chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, L.

Trotsky who favored postponing the insurrection, which was equivalent to breaking it off , was felt, as was that of Kamenev and Zinoviev, who on the very eve of the insurrection argued that it was doomed to defeat. We must at all costs, this very evening, this very night, arrest the government, having first disarmed the officer cadets defeating them if they resist , and so on.

It must be given the death blow at all costs. The Central Committee made his arrival known to all the districts, factories, and military units. With Lenin at their head, the revolutionary forces decisively went on the offensive. The planned seizure of strategic points in Petrograd continued. At A. At the same time, a Red Guard unit occupied the central power plant. At about A. During the night, the cruiser Aurora had anchored off the Nikolai Bridge now the Lieutenant Schmidt Bridge and the naval vessel Amur anchored off the Admiralty Embankment.

By morning the capital was in the hands of the insurgent people. On the afternoon of October 25 November 7 the revolutionary forces took the Mariinskii Palace, where the Preparliament was in session, and dispersed it.

Sailors occupied the military port and the main admiralty building, where the naval high command was arrested. At P. An announcement was made on the deposition of the Provisional Government, followed by a report by Lenin on the existing situation.

At the opening of the congress, of the delegates who had arrived were Bolsheviks. The congress proclaimed the transfer of all power to the soviets. In the Decree on Peace, the Soviet power proposed to all the belligerent countries that negotiations begin immediately for a just and democratic peace without annexations or indemnifications. By the terms of the Decree on Land, landlord ownership was abolished; landlord estates and crown, monastery, and church lands, with all livestock, implements, and buildings, and everything pertaining thereto, were given to the peasants without any compensation.

The right of private ownership of land was abolished and replaced by all-national ownership of the land. As a result of the implementation of this decree, the peasants received more than million hectares of land and were freed from annual rent payments to landlords amounting to million gold rubles.

With the establishment of the Soviet government began the building of the Soviet state—a state of a new type, a dictatorship of the proletariat. The counterrevolutionary forces, headed by the former prime minister Kerensky, who had fled to the Northern Front area on October 25 November 7 , General P. Dukhonin, the chief of staff to the supreme commander in chief, rebelled and began a civil war with the aim of overthrowing Soviet power.

The enemy began an offensive, occupied Gatchina and Tsarskoe Selo, and went to the heights of Pulkovo, thus creating a direct threat to revolutionary Petrograd.

In the capital the counterrevolutionaries formed a Committee for the Salvation of the Homeland and the Revolution, and on October 29 November 11 they started a mutiny of the cadets, which was suppressed on the same day.

On October 31 November 13 revolutionary troops drove the forces of Kerensky and Krasnov back from Pulkovo, and on November 1 14 they forced them to capitulate. Krasnov was arrested and Kerensky fled. Following the victory of the insurrection in Petrograd, which was almost bloodless, the armed struggle began in Moscow on October 25 November 7.

A Party Center whose members included M. Vladimirskii, V. Piatnitskii, V. Iakovleva, and Em. Iaroslavskii, and an MRC whose members included V. Nogin, P. Smidovich, G. Usievich, A. Lomov, and A. Vedernikov were established to lead the insurrection. In Moscow the revolutionary forces encountered extremely bitter opposition from the organized counterrevolution. From October 25 November 7 there was stubborn fighting.

On November 2 15 , Soviet rule was established in Moscow. The victory was won at the cost of great sacrifices; about 1, people had been killed during the insurrection. The victory of the socialist revolution in Petrograd and Moscow laid the basis for the triumphal march of Soviet power throughout the country.

The Party Central Committee, headed by Lenin, along with all the local Party organizations, led the struggle to establish Soviet rule in local areas. In most of the country this was done quickly and peacefully. Two factors played a decisive role in the immediate victory of the revolution all over the country.

The first was the existence of finished forms of proletarian power, such as the soviets, the decrees on land and peace, and the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia; these expressed the spirit and aspirations of the toiling people and had an enormously revolutionizing effect.

Soviet power was established in Central Russia at the same time as the armed insurrections in Petrograd and Moscow and immediately after them. As a result of active resistance by the petit bourgeois parties, the establishment of Soviet power was somewhat delayed in the following cities: in Orel, until November 25 December 8 ; in Kursk, until November 26 December 9 ; in Tula, until December 7 20 , ; and in Tambov, until January 31 February 13 , During November and December, Soviet power was established in most of the cities and factory settlements of the Urals.

There the struggle for power lasted right up until the convening of the provincial Congress of Soviets on December 16 A very difficult armed struggle for Soviet power developed in Orenburg Province, where one of the most dangerous centers of the Russian counterrevolution developed, headed by the cossack Hetman A. Basing himself on cossack units, he seized Orenburg, Cheliabinsk, and a number of other cities of the Southern Urals and set up the so-called Cossack Army Government.

As a result of decisive steps taken by the Soviet government, the Dutov antisoviet rebellion was crushed, and on November 20 December 3 , Soviet power was restored in Cheliabinsk. In the industrial cities of the Volga Region, Soviet power was established immediately after it was established in Petrograd and Moscow.

On October 26 November 8 , after overcoming two days of resistance by the counterrevolutionary forces, there was a Soviet victory in Kazan, and on October 27 November 9 in Samara and Saratov. The workers and soldiers in Saratov were forced to fight for two days thereafter to suppress a counterrevolutionary rebellion, which surrendered on October 29 November In Tsaritsyn, Soviet power was established by peaceful means over the period from October 28 November 10 to November 4 The struggle in Astrakhan took a more complicated course.

Combat between the revolutionary forces and the Astrakhan cossacks lasted from January 12 25 until January 25 February 7 , , and ended with the victory of the workers and soldiers. Having become Soviet, Central Russia served as the base for the socialist revolution throughout the country. The news of the revolutionary victory in the capitals and other cities spread rapidly to the active-duty army.

The Bolshevik Party organizations in the army and the fleet made timely preparations to support the armed insurrections in Petrograd and Moscow and to take action on the fronts themselves. This was of the greatest importance, for as Lenin noted, without winning the army to the Bolshevik side, the socialist revolution could not succeed.

The soldiers of the Northern and Western fronts and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet welcomed the socialist revolution and Soviet power. These took power within the army and introduced control over the command staffs of the Northern Front and Baltic Fleet. The commander of the Western Front was removed. The fleet and army units at the fronts placed their power at the disposal of the Soviet government.

The victory of the revolution on the Northern and Western fronts made it possible to eliminate the main center of the counterrevolution, the headquarters of the supreme commander in chief at Mogilev, on November December This headquarters had prepared the conspiracy against the socialist revolution.

The victory of the socialist revolution at the military fronts closest to the capital and in the Baltic Fleet were a major success for the Bolsheviks and had tremendous importance for the further development of the revolution. At the end of October and beginning of November, Soviet power was established throughout the part of the Baltic region that was not occupied by German troops. On the side of the revolution were 40, Latvian riflemen, who played a major role in establishing Soviet power in Latvia.

The Minsk Soviet took power on October 25 November 7. The armed insurrection in Kiev against the Provisional Government began on October 29 November 11 and was victorious on October 31 November However, power was usurped by the bourgeois nationalist Central Rada, which had powerful armed forces at its disposal.

The Central Rada began to fight against Soviet Russia, launched a campaign of terror against the revolutionary forces, and became one of the main centers of the all-Russian counterrevolution. The Bolsheviks everywhere in the Ukraine took up the struggle against the Central Rada for the establishment of Soviet power. The workers of the Donbas established Soviet power in Lugansk, Makeevka, Gorlovka, Kramatorsk, and other cities immediately after the victory of the armed insurrection in Petrograd.

A major historical event occurred for the Ukrainian people with the convening of the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, held December in Kharkov, where Soviet power had been established on November 10 Artem, E.

Bosh, V. Zatonskii, and N. In December and January the armed struggle for Soviet power spread and developed throughout the Ukraine. On January 5 18 , , Soviet Ukrainian troops began an offensive against Kiev.

On January 16 29 the workers of Kiev, led by those of the Arsenal Plant, began an armed insurrection against the Central Rada. On January 22 February 4 , Soviet troops entered Kiev. During those days in January the insurgent people of Kiev suffered the loss of more than 1, lives. During February, Soviet power was consolidated throughout the Ukraine. It was victorious in the Crimea in January , and in Moldavia at the beginning of January.

Kaledin, began an anti-Soviet rebellion in October. After seven days of fighting, on December 2 15 , the cossacks took Rostov, where Soviet power had been established earlier, on October 26 November 8. The cossacks then launched an offensive against the Donbas. However, a considerable number of cossacks did not support Kaledin.

Podtelkov as chairman. Soviet troops commanded by V. The struggle for Soviet power in the Northern Caucasus was waged under very complex conditions. On October 28 November 10 the soviet of Vladikavkaz voted for the Soviet power, and on November 4 17 it adopted a resolution, based on a report by S. Kirov, declaring support for the Sovnarkom headed by Lenin. But the counterrevolution, finding support among the cossacks and Caucasus Mountain tribes, founded the so-called Terek-Dagestan government on December 1 14 and crushed the soviets of Vladikavkaz, Groznyi, and other cities.

Under conditions in which terror and clashes between nationalities prevailed, the Bolsheviks of the Terek Oblast carried out preparations for a congress of the peoples of Terek. The first congress was convened in January in Mozdok, and the second in March in Piatigorsk.

Soviet power was established throughout the Terek region and a significant section of Dagestan. In the Kuban region and along the Black Sea coast, furious resistance on the part of the Kuban cossacks had to be overcome in the process of establishing Soviet power. On March 14 revolutionary troops fought their way into Ekaterinodar Krasnodar and took control of it. The socialist revolution in Transcaucasia was not immediately victorious. On October 31 November 13 , Soviet power was established in the proletarian city of Baku but only in the spring of was it extended to several raions in Azerbaijan.

Shaumian as chairman. In Georgia and Armenia the revolutionary forces were unable to take power. In Georgia the Mensheviks seized control, and in Armenia the Dashnaks.

In Middle Asia the revolution was opposed by the bourgeois nationalists, the bais wealthy stock raisers, merchants, or landowners , the clergy, the Russian officers, and the kulaks. Soviet power was established in Tashkent on November 1 14 as a result of an armed insurrection and fighting that had lasted from October 28 to 31 November Kolesov as chairman.

During the period from November to February , Soviet power was established in Samarkand, Ashkhabad, Krasnovodsk, Chardzhou, Merv, and other cities. By the spring of the Soviets held power throughout Middle Asia, with the exception of the Khiva khanate and the emirate of Bokhara, where the old order maintained its rule until In Siberia and the Far East the establishment of Soviet power was accompanied by serious resistance from the Siberian counterrevolution.

Krasnoiarsk became Soviet on October 28 November 10 , Omsk on November 30 December 13 , after the suppression of a counterrevolutionary mutiny, Tomsk on December 6 19 , Novonikolaevsk now Novosibirsk on December 13 26 , and Irkutsk on December 22 January 4, , after nine days of fighting between the revolutionary forces and the mutineers. The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, adopted by the Sovnarkom on November 2 15 , was of great importance for the victory of Soviet power in the border lands and outlying regions of the country.

This historic enactment of the Soviet government brought national oppression to an end and proclaimed the equality and sovereignty of all the nationalities in the country and their right to unrestricted self-determination, including the right to separate and form an independent state.

The government removed all national and religious privileges and restrictions and guaranteed the freedom of all the peoples, nationalities, and ethnic groups inhabiting Russia. It called on them to support the gains of the socialist revolution and to establish Soviet power. We passed in a victorious triumphal march of Bolshevism from one end of a vast country to the other. We raised the lowest strata of the working people, oppressed by tsarism and the bourgeoisie, to liberty and independent life.

The establishment of the Soviet socialist state. As a result of the victory of the October Revolution, the Communist Party became the ruling party. The working class, hitherto oppressed and exploited, became the dominant class, and a new state was established—the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The first task of the socialist revolution was to smash the old state machinery and construct a new one, the Soviet state.

The new Soviet state was the primary weapon for the defense of the conquests of the revolution against domestic and external counterrevolution and an instrument in the struggle for the construction of a socialist society. It also depended on the exceptional creative energy of workers, revolutionary soldiers, and peasants, and on the revolutionary intelligentsia.

The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission Chekha for the struggle against counterrevolution and sabotage was organized under the auspices of the Sovnarkom on December 7 20 , A decree on justice was signed on November 22 December 5. Establishment of the armed forces of the socialist state expanded, initially on a volunteer basis. The Soviet regime instituted socialist reforms in the area of the economy. The nationalization of the so-called state enterprises the Obukhov, Baltic, and Izhorsk plants, and others , the railroads, and many private enterprises began in November.

Experienced Party figures and vanguard workers were assigned to state and economic work. The Supreme Council of the Economy Sovnarkhoz was created on December 2 15 for the direction of the national economy.

The Soviet regime liquidated the vestiges of feudal relations, the estate system, and inequality of rights in all areas of social life. Simultaneously with the liquidation of landlord ownership of land as the basis of feudal vestiges, decrees were issued abolishing the estates and civil ranks; establishing uniform citizenship November 10 [23] , equal rights for women, and civil marriage December 18 [31] ; and separating the church from the state and schools from the church January 20 [February 2, ].

Responding to the popularity of the slogan for a Constituent Assembly, the Soviet government held elections for the assembly in November and convoked it on January 5 18 , The composition of the Constituent Assembly did not reflect the new correlation of class forces in the country.

The mood of the majority of the Constituent Assembly was counterrevolutionary; they refused to recognize the Soviet regime and to confirm the Declaration of the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited People.

This action was given general support by the workers, soldiers, peasants, and their soviets. The congress adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited People, which set forth the main tasks of the Soviet regime—the elimination of exploitation of any kind, the merciless suppression of exploiters, the establishment of the socialist organization of society, and the construction of socialism.

In instituting socialist reforms, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Sovnarkom adopted a number of important decrees. In order to liberate the country from financial bondage, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee issued a decree on January 21 February 3 , , anulling the foreign and domestic loans contracted by the tsarist government and the bourgeois Provisional Government. The merchant fleet was nationalized January 23 , as were foreign trade April 22 and private railroads September 4.

A decree nationalizing all large-scale industry was issued on June The most creative initiative and revolutionary energy of the working class and all toilers were displayed in the socialist reconstruction of the national economy. The means of production in industry were collectivized and turned into public property; this signified a revolutionary upheaval that marked the destruction of the foundations of the old, capitalist mode of production and the establishment of a socialist sector of the economy.

In industry, bourgeois productive relations were liquidated and new, socialist relations established. Collectivization of the means of production in agriculture, which entailed 15 to 16 million peasant farms, could not be carried out immediately.

Nationalization of the land and collectivization of the means of production in industry created the conditions for the millions of toiling peasants to be shifted gradually in the direction of socialism. Fundamental transformations in the sphere of culture began with the victory of the October Revolution.

Elementary and secondary schools and higher educational institutions, libraries, theaters, and museums became the property of the working people. Work was done to eliminate illiteracy among the adult population. A cultural revolution began. The services of literature, art, and the press were enlisted for the communist training and education of the working people.

The achievements of science and culture were put to use in the service of the working people. The Marxist-Leninist ideology became dominant in the country. The very first revolutionary act of the Soviet regime fundamentally undermined the forces of the bourgeoisie, landlords, reactionary bureaucracy, and counterrevolutionary parties; it broke the economic power of the overthrown exploiting classes, ensured the concentration of commanding posts in the hands of the Soviet regime, and persuasively demonstrated the genuinely popular nature of the Soviet regime, which has only the interests of the working people at heart.

During its very first days, the Soviet government initiated action in the struggle for peace. A policy of peace became the unshakable basis of its entire subsequent foreign policy. Negotiations for the conclusion of a peace treaty with Germany and its allies were begun in Brest on December 9 22 , The far-reaching expansionist aspirations of German imperialism were exposed during the course of these negotiations. However, the Soviet government was forced to accede to the onerous conditions of the peace treaty in order to obtain a breathing space to strengthen the Soviet regime and establish the armed forces.

There was a sharp struggle in the Central Committee of the Party and the Sovnarkom over the question of signing the peace treaty.

On February 10 23 , , negotiations were broken off. Taking advantage of this circumstance, the German command violated the armistice and on February 18 began an offensive all along the front.

The old army retreated, and the new army was still only being established. German troops occupied the Baltic region and a considerable portion of Byelorussia, invaded the Ukraine, and threatened Petrograd.

The Soviet Republic was in terrible danger. The Communist Party and the Soviet government called on the people to repulse the invaders. The workers and toiling peasants arose in arms against the German imperialists. February 23, , became the birthday of the Red Army. The German government agreed to resume peace negotiations. Soviet Russia left the war and obtained a peaceful respite. Lenin proposed a program for the initiation of socialist construction in his work The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Power April He considered the following to be urgent common tasks for the entire nation: organizing a nationwide system of accounting and control; implementing operations on a self-supporting financial basis; struggling to increase labor productivity; organizing socialist competition; and inculcating the people with the new, proletarian discipline.

In the countryside, the policy of the Soviet regime was primarily directed toward implementing the agrarian reforms of the October Revolution—the Decree on Land. Lands held by landlords were confiscated and distributed. As the socialist revolution unfolded further in the villages, the class struggle between the poor peasants and the kulaks intensified. In the spring and especially in the summer and fall of the kulaks embarked on an open struggle against Soviet power.

The middle peasantry showed signs of great vacillation. With the economy in a state of general decline, the anti-Soviet sabotage of the kulaks, who hid grain and hampered state grain purchases, caused hunger in the industrial centers. Workers and their families abandoned the cities; the factory proletariat decreased by half from what it had been in The struggle for bread became a fight for the salvation of the Soviet Republic.

Lenin said that the struggle for bread was ultimately the struggle for socialism. The creation of special food detachments composed of the most class-conscious workers began at the end of May They were sent to the grain-producing provinces. A decree on the organization of Committees of the Poor in the villages was adopted on June The organization of these committees signified a further deepening of the socialist revolution in the countryside. The socialist revolution reached the most remote villages.

With the aid of the food detachments, the Committees of the Poor not only provided enormous assistance in the resolution of the food problem but also began to redistribute kulak land and stock. The socioeconomic face of the countryside changed; by the end of , the proportion of poor peasants—65 percent of the population in —had declined to 35 percent; the middle peasantry, which had been 20 percent, was now 60 percent; and the kulaks, who had composed 15 percent were now 5 percent.

At the end of the middle peasant became the leading figure in the village. The political and economic positions of the kulak class were greatly undermined. The alliance of the working class and the poorest peasantry was cemented, and the dictatorship of the proletariat strengthened. The overthrown exploiting classes unleashed a civil war to restore capitalism. In essence, this war began immediately after the victory of the October armed uprising in Petrograd.

The united forces of the domestic bourgeois landlord counterrevolution and foreign imperialism stood in opposition to Soviet power and socialist reforms. Relying on the financial, military, and political aid of the Entente, the forces of counterrevolution succeeded in creating a massive army of White Guards. Soviet power was overthrown throughout these vast territories, the old regime was reestablished, and White terror was installed.

Soviet power was reestablished in all regions except for the Baltic, where the national bourgeoisie, aided by German troops, was able to maintain the capitalist order and create bourgeois republics. Bessarabia, which was occupied by Rumania, was not liberated. As a result of the Civil War, the Russian proletariat and toiling peasantry and the Soviet armed forces—the Red Army and the navy—defended the conquests of the Great October Socialist Revolution, preserving and strengthening the first worker-peasant state in the world.

The worldwide historical significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The October Revolution was fundamentally different from all preceding revolutions. It overthrew the rule of the capitalists and landlords, established the dictatorship of the proletariat, liquidated capitalism in Russia, eliminated the exploitation of one man by another, abolished social and national oppression, and opened the way to the construction of socialism and communism. The inspirer and organizer of the revolution was the Communist Party headed by Lenin, which based its activity on knowledge of the laws of social development and skillfully united into one revolutionary movement such diverse revolutionary currents as the pandemocratic movement for peace, the peasant democratic movement for land, the national liberation movement of oppressed peoples for national equality, and the socialist movement of the proletariat for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.

The Russian proletariat was the basic moving force in the revolution. The Party organized an alliance of the working class and the poor peasantry, which became decisive in the victory of the socialist revolution. The Marxist-Leninist doctrines passed the test of history:. The October Revolution broke the front of world imperialism and opened a new era in the history of humanity—the era of the downfall of capitalism and the triumph of socialism and communism. As a result of the October Socialist Revolution, the world split into two opposing systems—the system of socialism and the system of capitalism.

The ideas of Marxism-Leninism and of October spread all over the earth; they lifted peoples up to struggle for their freedom and independence against oppressors.

The achievements of the October Revolution became a mighty base for revolutionary transformations in all parts of the world. The October Revolution was a watershed in the development of the national liberation movement. It initiated the crisis of the colonial system and opened the epoch of national liberation revolutions in the colonial and dependent countries. It merged into a single current the struggle of the proletariat and other revolutionary forces and the struggle of oppressed peoples against national colonial oppression.

The October Revolution had an enormous revolutionizing influence on all the peoples of the world; it awakened the oppressed peoples, raised the broadest strata of the toiling masses to active political life, and helped strengthen the organization of the international proletariat. It was the cradle of the contemporary worldwide communist movement, which has become the greatest political force of modern times.

By its existence and its worldwide historical and social transformations, the Soviet socialist state born of the October Revolution inspires people all over the earth in the struggle for peace, democracy, and socialism. As a result of the victory of the October Revolution and the construction of the Soviet socialist state, humanity found a trusty bulwark in its struggle against wars of aggression and for peace and security.

The October Revolution outlined the high road to socialism for all humanity. Lenin, V. Moscow, Moscow-Leningrad, Revoliutsionnoe dvizhenie v russkoi armii: 27 fevralia—24 oktiabria, Sbornik dokumentov. Dekrety Sovetskoi vlasti, vols. Documents and materials. Dokumenty i materialy, parts Petrogradskii Voenno-revoliutsionnyi komitet, vol.

Sbornik dokumentov i materialov, vols. Kiev, Mart mart gg. Kishinev, Minsk, Baku, Tbilisi, Yerevan, Collection of documents. Tallin, Riga, Sbornik dokumentov. Vilnius, Frunze, Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Ashkhabad, Bubnov, A. O Krasnoi Armii. Dzerzhinskii, F. Kalinin, M. Kirov, S. Krupskaia, N. O Lenine: Sb.

Sverdlov, la. Ordzhonikidze, Sergo. Stalin, J. Stuchka, P. Shaumian, S. Antonov-Ovseenko, V. V revoliutsii. Bonch-Bruevich, V. Reminiscences of V. Bonch-Bruevich, M. Podvoiskii, N. God Istoriia KPSS, vols. Vsemirnaia istoriia, vols. Istoriia grazhdanskoi voiny v SSSR: , vols. Mints, I. Istoriia Velikogo Oktiabria, vols. Leningrad, Golikov, G. Revoliutsiia, otkryvshaia novuiu eru.

Volobuev, P. Proletariat i burzhuaziia Rossii v g. Gaponenko, L. Rabochii klass Rossii v godu. Golub, P. Rozhdenie Sovetskogo gosudarstva, Zetkin, K.

Williams, A. Translated from English. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of over Napoleon's army, that includes also the triumphal arch, erected in There is also a military history museum that includes statues, and military hardware.

Bolshoi Theatre Moscow is the heart of the Russian performing arts, including ballet and film, with 68 museums[] [] theaters, cinemas and 24 concert halls. It has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall. Memorial Museum of Astronautics under the Monument to the Conquerors of Space at the end of Cosmonauts Alley is the central memorial place for the Russian space officials.

The Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many classic films, as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions. Rare and historical films may be seen in the Salut cinema, where films from the Museum of Cinema[] collection are shown regularly. The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is the national museum of Russian architecture by the name of the architect Alexey Shchusev near the Kremlin area.

Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including 24 with artificial ice. The Olympic Stadium was the world's first indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championship twice. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow,[91] of which Central Moscow Hippodrome,[] founded in , is the largest.

SC Olimpiyskiy Moscow was the host city of the Summer Olympics, with the yachting events being held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia. Large sports facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the Summer Olympics.

Moscow had made a bid for the Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on July 6, , Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds. The Games were awarded to London. Moscow hosted the EuroBasket in and Moscow houses other prominent football, ice hockey, and basketball teams. There were army and police teams in most major cities. Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiing and frozen ponds for skating.

It is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year. Slava Moscow is a professional rugby club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Former rugby league heavyweights RC Lokomotiv have entered the same league as of They have also won the World Cup thrice and European Cup six times.

When Russia was given the right to host the FIFA World Cup, the Luzhniki Stadium got an increased capacity, by almost 10, new seats, in addition to a further two stadiums that have been built: the Dynamo Stadium, and the Spartak Stadium, although the first one later was dismissed from having World Cup matches.

Luzhniki Stadium is the largest stadium in the country. It has a capacity of up to 81, spectators. The stadium has VIP boxes, seats for media representatives and seats for people with disabilities. Otkritie Arena has a capacity of 45, seats. It is the home stadium to Spartak Moscow. The initiative was met with severe criticism from a large number of students and faculty. They claimed that the event would be disruptive to the examination period during the World Cup.

A compromise solution was found: the Fan Fest venue was finally located next to MSU but did not include the university grounds, with the main stage located meters away from the Main Building of MSU.

The capacity of the Fan Fest was reduced from 40, to 25, people. Other FIFA World Cup facilities that were initially supposed to be located on the university grounds were not placed there. The 11 training grounds built in Moscow for the World Cup are being used for training by over 10, young athletes.

Each of the training grounds is located next to a new children's and youth sports school. After the FIFA World Cup, they became its legacy, as these grounds can be used for training over more than 10, children. Entertainment See also: List of shopping malls in Moscow Tverskaya Street The city is full of clubs, restaurants, and bars.

Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow. Clubs, bars, creative spaces and restaurants-turned-into-dancefloors are flooding Moscow streets with new openings every year.

At the centre of the city, in the Central Administrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as national governmental facilities.

This includes military headquarters and the headquarters of the Federal Security Service. Moscow, like with any national capital, is also the host of all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia. Moscow is designated as one of three federal cities of Russia—the others being Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol.

Among the 85 federal subjects of Russia, Moscow represents the most populated one and the second-smallest one in terms of area. Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals. The basic law of the city is the Charter of Moscow that was adopted in The White House and the mayor's highrise office the former Comecon headquarters Executive The Mayor of Moscow is the leading official in the executive, leading the Government of Moscow, which is the highest organ of executive power.

It includes 45 members who are elected for a five-year term on Single-mandate constituency basis. Administrative divisions Administrative okrugs of Moscow: 1. Central 2. Northern 3. North-Eastern 4. Eastern 5. South-Eastern 6. Southern 7. South-Western 8. Western 9. North-Western Zelenogradsky Novomoskovsky The city of Moscow is divided into twelve administrative okrugs and districts. The Russian capital's town-planning development began to show as early as the 12th century when the city was founded.

The central part of Moscow grew by consolidating with suburbs in line with medieval principles of urban development when strong fortress walls would gradually spread along the circle streets of adjacent new settlements. The first circular defence walls set the trajectory of Moscow's rings, laying the groundwork for the future planning of the Russian capital.

The following fortifications served as the city's circular defense boundaries at some point in history: the Kremlin walls, Zemlyanoy Gorod Earthwork Town , the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, and the small railway ring. Also in the form of a circle are the main Moscow subway line, the Ring Line, and the so-called Third Automobile Ring, which was completed in Hence, the characteristic radial-circle planning continues to define Moscow's further development.

A part of Moscow Oblast's territory was merged into Moscow on July 1, ; as a result, Moscow is no longer fully surrounded by Moscow Oblast and now also has a border with Kaluga Oblast. Moscow's Mayor Sergey Sobyanin lauded the expansion that will help Moscow and the neighboring region, a "mega-city" of twenty million people, to develop "harmonically". In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status.

These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations. In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities.

And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city center, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious.

Moscow is the financial center of Russia and home to the country's largest banks and many of its largest companies, such as natural gas giant Gazprom. Many new business centers and office buildings have been built in recent years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office space. As a result, many former industrial and research facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office use.

Overall, economic stability has improved in recent years; nonetheless, crime and corruption still hinder business development. The Cherkizovskiy marketplace was the largest marketplace in Europe, with a daily turnover of about thirty million dollars and about ten thousand venders[] from different countries including China, Turkey, Azerbaijan and India.

It was administratively divided into twelve parts and covers a wide sector of the city. Since July it has been closed. However, as of , there were 27 billionaires in Moscow compared with New York's 55 billionaires. Overall, Russia lost 52 billionaires during the recession.

He also owns Chelsea F. Based on Forbes' list of the world's billionaires, Moscow is the city with the most billionaires in the world, with 79 from in all of Russia.

The tournament served as an additional driver for the city economy, its sports and tourist infrastructure, and for land improvement in the city. Industry Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software development and machinery industries.

The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world. NPO Energomash, producing the rocket engines for Russian and American space programs, as well as Lavochkin design bureau, which built fighter planes during WWII, but switched to space probes since the Space Race, are in nearby Khimki, an independent city in Moscow Oblast that have largely been enclosed by Moscow from its sides. The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad.

Yuri Gagarin in his trip into space used "Shturmanskie" produced by this factory. The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia.

The Kristall distillery[] is the oldest distillery in Russia producing vodka types, including "Stolichnaya" while wines are produced at Moscow wine plants, including the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. There are other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as microelectronic industries in Zelenograd, including Ruselectronics companies.

Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and the largest Russian company, has head offices also in Moscow, as well as other oil, gas, and electricity companies. Some industry is being transferred out of the city to improve the ecological state of the city. Cost of living See also: Hotels in Moscow Tretyakovsky Proyezd During Soviet times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors.

Private ownership of apartments was limited until the s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area. Stoleshnikov Lane The price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres square feet , a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square metres square feet , and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres square feet.

Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas country houses outside the city.

In , Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city. However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third behind Osaka in second place. Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the year prior.

Additionally, approximately 10, high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11, international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to become fluent in the Russian language.

It was founded in as the faculty of the Moscow state University. It is one of the largest medical universities in Russia and Europe. More than students are enrolled in academic departments. It offers courses for post-graduate studies. Moscow is one of the financial centers of the Russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools.

They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate, and economic theory, as well as Masters programs and MBAs. Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world. Bauman Moscow State Technical University Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in , is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18, undergraduate and 1, postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering, offering technical degrees.

Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in , remains Russia's best- known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4, students make up the university's student body and over , Russian and foreign-language books—of which 20, are considered rare—can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental sciences, in recent years Moscow has seen a growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management.

Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with different especially, European countries have also become widespread in Moscow's universities, while schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.

Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as research and applied science institutions. The Kurchatov Institute, Russia's leading research and development institution in the fields of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow.

There are libraries in the city, including for children. The library is home to over km mi of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and serial volumes, 13 million journals, , music scores and sound records, and , maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Its collection contains four million items in languages including 47 languages of the former USSR , mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science.

Levy of The New York Times wrote, "Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a whole is dispiriting, in part because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet scourge.

Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. There are additional payoffs for good grades. Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo.

Most of Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their international hub. Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to business aviation. Domodedovo International Airport Moscow's airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway: Domodedovo is the farthest at 22 km 14 mi ; Vnukovo is 11 km 7 mi ; Sheremetyevo is 10 km 6 mi ; and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres 5.

The North River Terminal, built in , is the main hub for long-range river routes. There are three freight ports serving Moscow. Railway Komsomolskaya Square known as Three Station Square thanks to three ornate rail terminal situated there: Leningradsky, Yaroslavsky, and Kazansky. Several train stations serve the city. Each station handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia.

As train tickets are cheap, they are the preferred mode of travel for Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly 9, kilometres 5, mi of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka electric rail network. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby up to km or 87 mi large railway stations.

During the s, the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service; it is fully integrated with Moscow Metro; the passenger service started on September 10, There is a connecting railway line on the North side of the town that connects Belorussky terminal with other railway lines.

This is used by some suburban trains. Metro Main article: Moscow Metro Moscow Metro route map, , with planned stations Moscow metro system is famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. It started operation in and immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system.

More than that it was a Stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art.

It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Lazar Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilisation as they rode. The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical prowess of the powerful new "Homo Sovieticus.

The Britons called for tunnelling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling stock. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedy station, completed in , at 84 metres ft underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is one of the world's busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily. In , the authorities launched a new circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues, namely daily congestion at Koltsevaya Line.

It was built alongside Little Ring of the Moscow Railway, taking some of its tracks into itself as well.

The MCC opened for passenger use on September 10, The track infrastructure and most platforms are owned by Russian Railways, while most station buildings are owned by MKZD.

Bus, electro bus and trolleybus As Metro stations outside the city center are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to 4 kilometres 2. Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them. With the total line length of almost kilometres miles of a single wire, 8 depots, routes, and vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus system was the largest in the world. But municipal authority, headed by Sergey Sobyanin, began to destroy trolleybus system in Moscow at due to corruption and planned replacement of trolleybuses by electrobuses.

However, there is still no one trolleybus route replaced by electrobus, and a lot of former trolleybus routes, that was replaced by diesel buses.

At Moscow trolleybus system have only 4 depots and dozens of kilometers of unused wires. Almost all trolleybus wires inside Garden Ring Sadovoe Koltso was cut in — due to the reconstruction of central streets "Moya Ulitsa". Opened on November 15, , it is also the world's 6th oldest operating trolleybus system. In the vehicle companies Kamaz and GAZ have won the Mosgortrans tender for delivering electric buses and 62 ultra-fast charging stations to the city transport system.

The manufacturers will be responsible for the quality and reliable operation of the buses and charging stations for the next 15 years. The city will be procuring only electric buses as of , replacing the diesel bus fleet gradually.

Russia will become the leader amongst the European cities in terms of electric and gas fuel share in public transport by , according to expectations. The line opened in No additional fare is needed first metro-monorail transfer in 90 minutes does not charge.

Monorail Moskau - Einfahrt in Station Telezentrum. The journey from the well-known viewpoint on Vorobyovy Gory to Luzhniki Stadium will last for five minutes instead of 20 minutes that one would have to spend on the same journey by car.

The cable car will work every day from 11 a. The cable car is meters long. It was built to transport 1, passengers per hour in all weathers. There 35 closed capsules designed by Porsche Design Studio to transport passengers. The booths are equipped with media screens, LED lights, hooks for bikes, skis and snowboards. Passengers will also be able to use audio guides in English, German, Chinese and Russian languages.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Moscow Tram Network Moscow has an extensive tram system, which first opened in The newest line was built in Trams still remain important in some districts as feeders to Metro stations.

The trams also provide important cross links between metro lines, for example between Universitet station of Sokolnicheskaya Line 1 red line and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line 6 orange line or between Voykovskaya and Strogino. This network became separated in , but until it could easily have been reconnected by about one kilometre 0.

The network has the highest usage in Moscow and no weak points based on turnover except to-depot lane passengers serviced by bus and tram ring at Dmitrovskaya because now it is neither a normal transfer point nor a repair terminal.

The Apakov depot services the south-western part from the Varshavsky lane — Simferopolsky boulevard in the east to the Universitet station in the west and Boulevard lane at the center.

This network is connected only by the four-way Dubininskaya and Kozhevnicheskaya streets. A second connection by Vostochnaya Eastern street was withdrawn in due to fire at Dinamo plant and has not been recovered, and remains lost Avtozavodsky bridge at The network may be serviced anyway by another depot now route 35, Main three depot networks with railway gate and tram-repair plant.

In addition, tram advocates have suggested that the new rapid transit services metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail would be more effective as at-grade tram lines and that the current problems with trams are only due to poor management and operation, not the technical properties of trams.

New tram models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion. New technology and service platforms Yandex. Taxi, Uber and Gett ex-GetTaxi displaced many private drivers and small service providers. Commercial taxi services are available.

In addition, route taxis are in widespread use. Recent years have seen growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems. There are several other roadway systems that form concentric circles around the city.

Sharing system Moscow has different vehicle sharing options that are sponsored by the local government: there are several car sharing companies which are in charge of providing cars to the population. To drive the automobiles, the user has to book them through the app of the owning company. In the mayor Sergey Sobyanin said Moscow's car sharing system has become the biggest in Europe in terms of vehicle fleet. In the end of the same year Moscow carsharing became the second in the world in therms of fleet with The goal of MIBC is to create a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe,[] that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment.

The project was conceived by the Moscow government in The construction of Moscow-City takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up to one square kilometre acres. The area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes. The Federation Tower, completed in , is the second tallest building in Europe. Also to be included in the project are a water park and other recreational facilities; business and entertainment complexes, office and residential buildings, the transport network and the new site of the Moscow government.

The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned. Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line. The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in and was later renamed Vystavochnaya in The branch extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya station in , and all work on the third station, Dorogomilovskaya between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr , has been postponed.

There are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. It is to be completed by and will have a total length of 61 kilometres 38 mi.

Moscow International Business Center Media See also: Media of Russia Moscow is home to nearly all of Russia's nationwide television networks, radio stations, newspapers, and magazines. Newspapers Further information: List of newspapers in Russia English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News, which are, respectively, the largest[] and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. Kommersant and Vedomosti are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers.

The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM band is near Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. President of the Russian Federation. Effective as of May 13, Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. Comins-Richmond, Walter. Occidental College. Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved July 3, Moscow City Duma. Moscow City Government. June 28, Archived from the original on August 23, Retrieved September 29, Government of Moscow.

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Pokorny, Julius. Archived from the original on March 10, Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow p. Soloviev, and John J. Windhausen, eds. History of Russia.

John F. Richards University of California Press. John T. Alexander Oxford University Press US. ISBN M. Anderson, Peter the Great p. Albert Seaton, Michael Youens Presidential Library. Retrieved March 12, Robert J. RBTH, special to November 4, Leslie, Chris October 31, Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved April 29, Retrieved March 31, The air temperature and rainfall.

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