Jun 02, · Home › American Literature › Analysis of William Gaddis’s Novels. Analysis of William Gaddis’s Novels By Nasrullah Mambrol on June 2, • (0). Critics have placed William Gaddis (December 29, – December 16, ) in the tradition of experimental fiction, linking him closely to James Joyce and comparing him to contemporaries such as Thomas Pynchon. Summary: Chapter 22 That night, Jem cries, railing against the injustice of the verdict. The next day, Maycomb’s black population delivers an avalanche of food to the Finch household. Outside, Miss Stephanie Crawford is gossiping with Mr. Avery and Miss Maudie, and she tries to question Jem and Scout about the trial. Common Sense, The Rights of Man, and Other Essential Writings of Thomas (Meridian) T+ 25 MB: Architectural drawing and light construction.
Related videosTo Kill a Mockingbird Chapters 23-31 Summary
They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence , which asserted that Great Britain was not protecting Americans' unalienable rights. July 4 is celebrated annually as Independence Day. Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in ,  Britain signed the peace treaty of , and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River.
Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of in writing the United States Constitution , ratified in state conventions in The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington , who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.
In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars. From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations.
The U. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the s. Irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, as well as whether to expand or restrict slavery.
With the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" or the "Confederacy" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.
Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation , the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.
The government enacted three constitutional amendments in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,  and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote.
The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power  aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves. Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, , drove a wedge between North and South again.
Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ," took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.
From to the Redeemers established so-called Jim Crow laws , disenfranchising most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.
The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.
Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Rockefeller , and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad , petroleum , and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J.
Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in until , when it joined the war as an "associated power," alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.
However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In , the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the " Four Policemen "  of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China. The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war. After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism.
While the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times. At home, the U. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.
A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination. The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order. Fearing the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy.
Originating within U. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,  widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,  and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve  led to the mids housing bubble , which culminated with the financial crisis , the nation's largest economic contraction since the Great Depression.
In , the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act , which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates , subsidies and insurance exchanges. American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,, Of this area, 2,, The United States is the world's third- or fourth- largest nation by total area land and water , ranking behind Russia and Canada and nearly equal to China.
The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured. The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. There are 62 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation ,   and international responses to global warming. Census Bureau officially estimated the country's population to be ,, as of July 1, Population Clock that approximates the latest population of the 50 states and District of Columbia based on the Bureau's most recent demographic trends.
The United States is the third most populous nation in the world, after China and India. In the median age of the United States population was In , there were almost 90 million immigrants and U. White Americans mostly European ancestry are the largest racial group at In , out of the U.
Until and , the United States led the word in refugee resettlement for decades, admitted more refugees than the rest of the world combined. A Gallup poll concluded that 4. A United Nations report projected that the U. Census Bureau report projected the population of the country could be anywhere between million and million by , depending on the rate of in-migration; in all projected scenarios, a lower fertility rate and increases in life expectancy would result in an aging population.
The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans is a major demographic trend. The The United States has an annual birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is five births per 1, below the world average. Many metros in the South, Southwest and West grew significantly between and The Dallas and Houston metros increased by more than a million people, while the Washington, D.
English specifically, American English is the de facto national language of the United States. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U. Spanish is also the most widely taught second language. Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan  is officially recognized by American Samoa and Chamorro  is an official language of Guam.
The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education , are Spanish around 7. Religion in the United States . The First Amendment of the U. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.
In a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at As with other Western countries, the U. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Abortion rates, currently per 1, live births and 15 per 1, women aged 15—44, are falling but remain higher than most Western nations. The total fertility rate in was Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline, primarily among the age group 25 to 64, is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates; the country has one of the highest suicide rates among wealthy countries.
Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in , to 42nd in , and as of the country had the lowest life expectancy among Japan, Canada, Australia, the UK, and seven countries of western Europe.
In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U. Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.
Alzheimer's disease , drug abuse, kidney disease , cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted per-capita rates. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal.
In , American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.
In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or Of Americans 25 and older, The United States has many private and public institutions of higher education.
The majority of the world's top universities, as listed by various ranking organizations, are in the U. In , U21 , a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor.
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law. In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government : federal, state, and local.
The local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.
The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;  the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.
The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The District of Columbia and the five major U.
The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The president is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.
The state governments are structured in a roughly similar fashion, though Nebraska has a unicameral legislature. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote. The 50 states are the principal administrative divisions in the country. These are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities.
Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency. Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U. The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.
Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in The president and vice president are elected by the Electoral College.
In American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal. The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.
Republican Donald Trump , the winner of the presidential election , is serving as the 45th president of the United States. The Senate consists of 53 Republicans and 45 Democrats with two Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of Democrats, Republicans, and 1 Libertarian.
Among the D. The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions.
Colombia is traditionally considered by the United States as its most loyal ally in South America. Taxation in the United States is levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. This includes taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates, and gifts, as well as various fees.
Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency. The United States is one of the only countries in the world to do so. In taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to The president is the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In , the armed forces had 1. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2. The Department of Defense also employed about , civilians, not including contractors.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. The military operates bases and facilities abroad,  and maintains deployments greater than active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the second largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world.
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff 's offices, with state police providing broader services. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights , national security and enforcing U. A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from showed that United States "homicide rates were 7. The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world.
Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and at the state level in 30 states. Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. Since the decision there have been more than 1, executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma. In , the country had the sixth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran , Saudi Arabia , Iraq , and Egypt.
According to the International Monetary Fund , the U. In , the total U. From to , U. In , the private sector was estimated to constitute With The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most European nations.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation  and is one of a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the midth century.
Civil War and Reconstruction b. Queering in the South c. Motives and narrative techniques. Southern Gothic in chosen novels a. A Streetcar Named Desire i. Content ii. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic b. The Sound and the Fury i. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic c. Light in August i. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic d.
Bastard out of Carolina i. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic. Attachment a. A Streetcar Named Desire ii. The Sound and the Fury iii. Light in August b.
Mother issues and desire of the Compson boys c. Vacation in the Southern States i. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina ii. Big Walker Mountain, Wytheville, Viginia. About two years ago, I was looking in a bookstore for new books to read. I had never been interested in books from the past centuries, but since I had a long row of modern day books, I decided to buy some of them and give it a try. I noticed that reading those books was not quite so difficult, though it was hard at first to get into the stories.
Its genre, I concluded, was a bit different from Gothic, the genre that the other books I had bought were written in, though it did contain a lot of gothic elements in it, like Boo Radley, who is said to be a phantom, the Ewell family, people in Maycomb with a strange behavior, or the burning house of Miss Maudie. I was happy about discussing To Kill a Mockingbird in eleventh grade and became even more engrossed with its story.
In this essay, I will discuss the Southern Gothic Literature, the genre which To Kill a Mockingbird was written in, its historical background and respectively the political and social circumstances that have influenced it. I have bought four books from the Southern Gothic Literature to present in this essay.
I chose these books because each two of them represent two important subjects in the literature of the Southern States: A Streetcar named Desire  by Tennessee Williams and The Sound and the Fury  by William Faulkner express the downfall of Southern nobility and the exclusion of their characters from society, Light in August  , also by William Faulkner, expresses intimacy and homosexuality in the Southern States and Bastard out of Carolina  from Dorothy Allison is at the same time a coming-of-age novel dealing with a childhood subjected to poverty, violence and sexual abuse.
In the attachment, I will explain the backgrounds for the titles of the books. Typical for Southern Gothic are depressing, disturbing and deranged characters and symbols. Compared to Gothic itself, Southern Gothic focuses on social and cultural issues, such as racial suppression and violence, paying less attention to creating suspense in the stories.
Referring to novels written in the era, they often include villains who disguise themselves as being innocent or victims and engage with the decline of the Southern aristocracy. Authors of the Southern Gothic literature examine the harm people can do to each other through their characters, which are typically broken in life and are struggling to find a place in the world.
The reason Southern Gothic authors preferably chose outsiders as the heroes of their novels is because they reflect the identity of the South, which back then was an errant society. Before the beginning of this chapter, the differences between the Northern the Union and the Southern States the Confederacy must be observed first.
The North was industrialized, whereas the South remained agricultural. Northerners were proud of working in economically developed states. Mostly, their workplace was in offices and factories. The Southerners, in contrast, were proud of their hard work on the plantations and loved nature. Further, their way of living depended on certain values, such as family reputation or remaining chaste as it was for the women and slavery in the South was legal.
Both, Northerners and Southerners, regarded themselves stronger than the other one. The South might not be as economically developed as the North, but Southerners thought that they were the ones who were down to earth, whereas Northerners were more arrogant in their eyes.
In the s, self-esteem of white people in the South progressed in contrast to the slavery of the black people. When Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States, most of the Southern States left the Union , because Lincoln supported the ban on slavery throughout the United States which they saw as a violation of their constitutional rights. In February , seven slave states in the South announced their secession and formed the Confederate States with Jefferson Davis as their president in opposition to Lincoln.
From to , the Union , fought against the Confederacy consisting of slave states from the South. This war is known as the American Civil War. Most of the freed slaves stayed in the South, while others went up to the North. When Jefferson Davis fled on the 10th of May and was captured by the soldiers of the Union, the Confederacy gave up.
About eight month after the end of the Civil War, the United States passed the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery. In every battle of the Civil War, the South lost soldiers who could not be replaced whereas the North took any man from their cities to replace fallen comrades.
Compared to the North the South lacked of military resources for fighting in the war. It was the South who suffered the greatest loss in the War. The abolition of slavery was a success for the black people.
People in the Confederate States could not accept slavery as being the reason for the war. Southern culture was focusing on an old-fashioned ideology of the European 18th and 19th century. Southern wealth increased when cotton plantations became popular in the first half of the 19th century. Money that was earned by these plantations made the families rich, so that many of their heads became plantation owners.
As slavery was abolished, Southern nobilities lost their slaves, hence the key to their success disappeared. Even before the Great Depression  , poverty in the South was a widespread problem. The Great Migration  shortly after the Civil War for instance, was one important cause. The high percentage of people living beneath the poverty line was a central theme in the Southern States of the US. A lived in the South in the beginning of Even poor white people were labeled as white trash , redneck and dirt-eater.
The economical progress in the Southern States is still disabled by racism and poverty. According to the US census, the South had the highest poverty rate. The term white trash is still a permitted term in the US. The literature in the Southern States, as mentioned before, consists of many features that often appear in Southern Gothic novels, but political and social circumstances have an influence on the writings as well.
The literature in the Southern States, during and after the Civil War, consists of American schism and defeat. As Reconstruction  advanced as a literal subject, Southerners often claimed that the North may have won the war, but the South won peace, although they neglect the fact, that the North kept their economical power throughout the 19th century.
To queer is to differ from the norms of society. In contemporary usage queer means being attracted to a member of the same sex. Queering became a politically defiant term in the s for the expression of sex and gender, including bisexuality, transsexualism and sadomasochism.
Capote had distinct views on equality of all kinds of people. More than any other writer of his time, Williams brought discussions about homosexuality into public. Southern writers, even today, will always include queer elements, as long as homophobia and violence maintain problems in the South. The tradition of the literature in the Southern States was story-telling.
Authors like Dorothy Allison use counter-narratives  to enable poor characters to have a voice, describing the poor white stereotypes in the Southern States.
Referring to Bastard out of Carolina , her male characters are violent and abusive drinkers, whereas her female characters are broken. Civil Disobedience is a movement which refused to observe laws of the government. Besides queering, it was also a criticism against the conservative South. William Faulkner is declared one of the most important writers of American modernism. He is the most influencing writer of the American literature in the 20th century, irrespectively of North and South. His narrative techniques, such as the stream of consciousness , were a new experience to readers in the US.
It reflects his role in society either as an outsider or someone who conforms to the norms. The first section of the novel is told by a mentally retarded year old man whose thoughts are disjointed. In his writings, sexuality becomes an important subject which makes Faulkner significant as being an author who presents queer studies.
His novels show examples of homoeroticism and preposterous desires of his characters, for instance, the way Quentin Compson, a character in The Sound and the Fury , loves his sister, or the seduction of Joe Christmas, the protagonist in Light in August , by an older woman.