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At 6, m 20, ft , Mt. McKinley in Alaska is the highest peak in North America. These topographic extremes suggest the geological instability of the Pacific Coast region, which is part of the "Ring of Fire," a seismically active band surrounding the Pacific Ocean.
Major earthquakes destroyed San Francisco in and Anchorage , Alaska, in , and the San Andreas Fault in California still causes frequent earth tremors. In , there was a total of U. Washington State's Mt. Helens erupted in , spewing volcanic ash over much of the Northwest. The eastern continental region is well watered, with annual rainfall generally in excess of cm 40 in. It includes all of the Atlantic seaboard and southeastern states and extends west to cover Indiana , southern Illinois , most of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana , and easternmost Texas.
The eastern seaboard is affected primarily by the masses of air moving from west to east across the continent rather than by air moving in from the Atlantic. Hence its climate is basically continental rather than maritime.
The midwestern and Atlantic seaboard states experience hot summers and cold winters; spring and autumn are clearly defined periods of climatic transition. Only Florida , with the Gulf of Mexico lying to its west, experiences moderate differences between summer and winter temperatures. The Gulf and South Atlantic states are often hit by severe tropical storms originating in the Caribbean in late summer and early autumn. In the past few years, the number of hurricanes and their severity have measurably increased.
From — 94, there were about three hurricanes per year. From to , there were a total of 32 major hurricanes with sustained winds of miles per hour or greater. In there were a record-breaking 23 named Atlantic hurricanes, three of which caused severe damage to the Gulf Coast region. On 25 August , Hurricane Katrina hit Florida as a category 1 hurricane.
By 29 August, the storm developed into a category 4 hurricane that made landfall in southern Louisiana. Several levees protecting the low-lying city of New Orleans broke, flooding the entire region under waters that rose over the rooftops of homes.
Over 1, were killed by the storm. Over , people were left homeless and without jobs. One month later, Hurricane Rita swept first into Florida and continued to make landfall between Sabine Pass, Texas, and Johnson's Bayou, Louisiana, on 24 September as a category 3 hurricane. Before reaching land, however, the storm had peaked as a category 5 hurricane that was placed on record as the strongest measured hurricane to ever have entered the Gulf of Mexico and the fourth most intense hurricane ever in the Atlantic Basin.
Over people were killed. Hurricane Wilma followed on 24 October when it made landfall north of Everglades City in Florida as a category 3 hurricane. There were about 22 deaths in the United States from Wilma; however, the storm also hit Cuba , Haiti , Jamaica, and Mexico, reaching a death toll of at least 25 people from those countries combined.
The prairie lands lying to the west constitute a subhumid region. Precipitation usually exceeds evaporation by only a small amount; hence the region experiences drought more often than excessive rainfall. Dryness generally increases from east to west. Rainfall along the western border of the prairie region is as low as 46 cm 18 in per year in the north and 64 cm 25 in in the south.
Precipitation is greatest in the early summer — a matter of great importance to agriculture, particularly in the growing of grain crops. In dry years, the prevailing winds may carry the topsoil eastward particularly from the southern region for hundreds of miles in clouds that obscure the sun. The Great Plains constitute a semiarid climatic region. Rainfall in the southern plains averages about 50 cm 20 in per year and in the northern plains about 25 cm 10 in , but extreme year-to-year variations are common.
The tropical air masses that move northward across the plains originate on the fairly high plateaus of Mexico and contain little water vapor.
Periods as long as days without rain have been experienced in this region. The rains that do occur are often violent, and a third of the total annual rainfall may be recorded in a single day at certain weather stations.
The contrast between summer and winter temperatures is extreme throughout the Great Plains. From the Texas panhandle north, blizzards are common in the winter, and tornadoes at other seasons. The average minimum temperature for January in Duluth, Minn.
The higher reaches of the Rockies and the mountains paralleling the Pacific coast to the west are characterized by a typical alpine climate. Precipitation as a rule is heavier on the western slopes of the ranges.
The great intermontane arid region of the West shows. In New Mexico , Arizona , and southeastern California, the greatest precipitation occurs in July, August, and September, mean annual rainfall ranging from 8 cm 3 in in Yuma, Ariz. North of the Utah -Arizona line, the summer months usually are very dry; maximum precipitation occurs in the winter and early spring.
In the desert valleys west of Great Salt Lake , mean annual precipitation adds up to only 10 cm 4 in. Although the northern plateaus are generally arid, some of the mountainous areas of central Washington and Idaho receive at least cm 60 in of rain per year. Throughout the intermontane region, the uneven availability of water is the principal factor shaping the habitat.
The Pacific coast, separated by tall mountain barriers from the severe continental climate to the east, is a region of mild winters and moderately warm, dry summers. Its climate is basically maritime, the westerly winds from the Pacific Ocean moderating the extremes of both winter and summer temperatures.
Precipitation in general increases along the coast from south to north, extremes ranging from an annual average of 4. Climatic conditions vary considerably in the vastness of Alaska. In the fogbound Aleutians and in the coastal panhandle strip that extends southeastward along the Gulf of Alaska and includes the capital, Juneau, a relatively moderate maritime climate prevails.
The interior is characterized by short, hot summers and long, bitterly cold winters, and in the region bordering the Arctic Ocean a polar climate prevails, the soil hundreds of feet below the surface remaining frozen the year round.
Although snowy in winter, continental Alaska is relatively dry. Hawaii has a remarkably mild and stable climate with only slight seasonal variations in temperature, as a result of northeast ocean winds. Rainfall is moderate — about 71 cm 28 in per year — but much greater in the mountains; Mt. Waialeale on Kauai has a mean annual rainfall of 1, cm in , highest in the world.
The record annual rainfall is 1, cm in recorded at Kukui, Maui in ; the previous record for a one-year period was 1, cm in recorded at Fuu Kukui, Maui, in ; in 1 hour, 30 cm 12 in , at Holt, Mo.
At least 7, species and subspecies of indigenous US flora have been categorized. The eastern forests contain a mixture of softwoods and hardwoods that includes pine, oak, maple, spruce, beech, birch, hemlock, walnut, gum, and hickory.
The central hardwood forest, which originally stretched unbroken from Cape Cod to Texas and northwest to Minnesota — still an important timber source — supports oak, hickory, ash, maple, and walnut. Pine, hickory, tupelo, pecan, gum, birch, and sycamore are found in the southern forest that stretches along the Gulf coast into the eastern half of Texas. The Pacific forest is the most spectacular of all because of its enormous redwoods and Douglas firs.
In the southwest are saguaro giant cactus , yucca, candlewood, and the Joshua tree. The central grasslands lie in the interior of the continent, where the moisture is not sufficient to support the growth of large forests. The tall grassland or prairie now almost entirely under cultivation lies to the east of the th meridian. To the west of this line, where rainfall is frequently less than 50 cm 20 in per year, is the short grassland.
Mesquite grass covers parts of west Texas, southern New Mexico , and Arizona. Short grass may be found in the highlands of the latter two states, while tall grass covers large portions of the coastal regions of Texas and Louisiana and occurs in some parts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.
The Pacific grassland includes northern Idaho, the higher plateaus of eastern Washington and Oregon, and the mountain valleys of California. The intermontane region of the Western Cordillera is for the most part covered with desert shrubs.
Sagebrush predominates in the northern part of this area, creosote in the southern, with salt-brush near the Great Salt Lake and in Death Valley. The lower slopes of the mountains running up to the coastline of Alaska are covered with coniferous forests as far north as the Seward Peninsula.
The central part of the Yukon Basin is also a region of softwood forests. The rest of Alaska is heath or tundra. Hawaii has extensive forests of bamboo and ferns. Sugarcane and pineapple, although not native to the islands, now cover a large portion of the cultivated land.
Small trees and shrubs common to most of the United States include hackberry, hawthorn, serviceberry, blackberry, wild cherry, dogwood, and snowberry.
Wildflowers bloom in all areas, from the seldom-seen blossoms of rare desert cacti to the hardiest alpine species. Wildflowers include forget-me-not, fringed and closed gentians, jack-in-the-pulpit, black-eyed Susan , columbine, and common dandelion, along with numerous varieties of aster, orchid, lady's slipper, and wild rose. An estimated species of mammals characterize the animal life of the continental United States. Among the larger game animals are the white-tailed deer, moose, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black bear, and grizzly bear.
The Alaskan brown bear often reaches a weight of 1,, lbs. Some 25 important furbearers are common, including the muskrat, red and gray foxes, mink, raccoon, beaver, opossum, striped skunk, wood-chuck, common cottontail, snowshoe hare, and various squirrels. Human encroachment has transformed the mammalian habitat over the last two centuries. The American buffalo bison , millions of which once roamed the plains, is now found only on select reserves.
Other mammals, such as the elk and gray wolf, have been restricted to much smaller ranges. Year-round and migratory birds abound. Loons, wild ducks, and wild geese are found in lake country; terns, gulls, sandpipers, herons, and other seabirds live along the coasts.
Wrens, thrushes, owls, hummingbirds, sparrows, woodpeckers, swallows, chickadees, vireos, warblers, and finches appear in profusion, along with the robin, common crow, cardinal, Baltimore oriole, eastern and western meadowlarks, and various blackbirds. Wild turkey , ruffed grouse, and ring-necked pheasant introduced from Europe are popular game birds.
There are at least species of birds found throughout the country. Lakes, rivers, and streams teem with trout, bass, perch, muskellunge, carp, catfish, and pike; sea bass , cod, snapper, and flounder are abundant along the coasts, along with such shellfish as lobster, shrimp, clams, oysters, and mussels.
Garter, pine, and milk snakes are found in most regions. Four poisonous snakes survive, of which the rattlesnake is the most common. Alligators appear in southern waterways and the Gila monster makes its home in the Southwest. Laws and lists designed to protect threatened and endangered flora and fauna have been adopted throughout the United States. Generally, each species listed as protected by the federal government is also protected by the states, but some states may list species not included on federal lists or on the lists of neighboring states.
Conversely, a species threatened throughout most of the United States may be abundant in one or two states. As of November , the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed endangered US species up from listed in , including 68 species of mammals, 77 birds, 74 fish, and plants; and threatened species in , including 11 species of mammals, 13 birds, 42 fish, and plants.
The agency listed another endangered and 46 threatened foreign species by international agreement. Threatened species, likely to become endangered if recent trends continue, include such plants as Lee pincushion cactus. Among the endangered floral species in imminent danger of extinction in the wild are the Virginia round-leaf birch, San Clemente Island broom, Texas wildrice, Furbish lousewort, Truckee barberry, Sneed pincushion cactus, spineless hedgehog cactus, Knowlton cactus, persistent trillium, dwarf bear-poppy, and small whorled pogonia.
Endangered mammals included the red wolf, black-footed ferret, jaguar, key deer, northern swift fox, San Joaquin kit fox, jaguar, jaguarundi, Florida manatee, ocelot, Florida panther , Utah prairie dog , Sonoran pronghorn, and numerous whale species. Endangered species of rodents included the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel, beach mouse, salt-marsh harvest mouse, 7 species of bat Virginia and Ozark big-eared Sanborn's and Mexican long-nosed, Hawaiian hoary, Indiana, and gray , and the Morro Ba, Fresno, Stephens', and Tipton Kangaroo rats and rice rat.
Endangered species of birds included the California condor, bald eagle , three species of falcon American peregrine, tundra peregrine, and northern aplomado , Eskimo curlew, two species of crane whooping and Mississippi sandhill , three species of warbler Kirtland's, Bachman's, and golden-cheeked , dusky seaside sparrow, light-footed clapper rail, least tern, San Clemente loggerhead shrike, bald eagle endangered in most states, but only threatened in the Northwest and the Great Lakes region , Hawaii creeper, Everglade kite, California clapper rail, and red-cockaded woodpecker.
Endangered amphibians included four species of salamander Santa Cruz long-toed, Shenandoah, desert slender, and Texas blind , Houston and Wyoming toad, and six species of turtle green sea, hawksbill, Kemp's ridley, Plymouth and Alabama redbellied, and leatherback.
Endangered reptiles included the American crocodile, blunt nosed leopard and island night , and San Francisco garter snake. Also classified as endangered were two species of earthworm Washington giant and Oregon giant , the Socorro isopod, San Francisco forktail damselfly, Ohio emerald dragonfly, three species of beetle Kretschmarr Cave, Tooth Cave, and giant carrion , Belkin's dune tabanid fly, and 10 species of butterfly Schaus' swallowtail, lotis, mission, El Segundo, and Palos Verde blue, Mitchell's satyr, Uncompahgre fritillary, Lange's metalmark, San Bruno elfin, and Smith's blue.
Endangered plants in the United States include: aster, cactus, pea, mustard, mint, mallow, bellflower and pink family, snapdragon, and buckwheat. Several species on the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plants are found only in Hawaii.
Endangered bird species in Hawaii included the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel, Hawaiian gallinule, Hawaiian crow, three species of thrush Kauai, Molokai, and puaiohi , Kauai 'o'o, Kauai nukupu'u, Kauai 'alialoa, 'akiapola'au, Maui'akepa, Molokai creeper, Oahu creeper, palila, and 'o'u. Species formerly listed as threatened or endangered that have been removed from the list include with delisting year and reason American alligator , recovered ; coastal cutthroat trout , taxonomic revision ; Bahama swallowtail butterfly , amendment ; gray whale , recovered ; brown pelican , recovered ; Rydberg milk-vetch , new information ; Lloyd's hedgehog cactus , taxonomic revision , and Columbian white-tailed Douglas County Deer , recovered.
There are at least species of plants and animals that have become extinct, including the Wyoming toad, the Central Valley grasshopper, Labrador duck, Carolina parakeet, Hawaiian crow, chestnut moth, and the Franklin tree. The Council on Environmental Quality, an advisory body contained within the Executive Office of the President, was established by the National Environmental Policy Act of , which mandated an assessment of environmental impact for every federally funded project.
The Environmental Protection Agency EPA , created in , is an independent body with primary regulatory responsibility in the fields of air and noise pollution , water and waste management, and control of toxic substances. In addition to the legislation, landmark federal laws protecting the environment include the Clean Air Act Amendments of and , controlling automobile and electric utility emissions; the Water Pollution Act of , setting clean-water criteria for fishing and swimming; and the Endangered Species Act of , protecting wildlife near extinction.
In , there were 1, hazardous waste sites on the Superfund's national priority list. The most influential environmental lobbies include the Sierra Club founded in ; , members in and its legal arm, the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund. Large conservation groups include the National Wildlife Federation ; over 4,, , the National Audubon Society ; , , and the Nature Conservancy ; 1,, Greenpeace USA founded in has gained international attention by seeking to disrupt hunts for whales and seals.
Among the environmental movement's most notable successes have been the inauguration and mandating in some states of recycling programs; the banning in the United States of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT ; the successful fight against construction of a supersonic transport SST ; and the protection of more than 40 million hectares million acres of Alaska lands after a fruitless fight to halt construction of the trans-Alaska pipeline ; and the gradual elimination of chlorofluorocarbon CFC production by In March , the US Senate narrowly voted to reject a Bush administration plan to begin oil exploration in the 19 million acre 7.
In , about Yellowstone National Park , founded in , was the first national park established worldwide. Outstanding problems include acid rain precipitation contaminated by fossil fuel wastes ; inadequate facilities for solid waste disposal; air pollution from industrial emissions the United States leads the world in carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels ; the contamination of homes by radon, a radio.
The population of United States in was estimated by the United Nations UN at ,,, which placed it at number 3 in population among the nations of the world. There were 97 males for every females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for — was expected to be 0. The projected population for the year was ,, The population density was per sq km 80 per sq mi , with major population concentrations are along the northeast Atlantic coast and the southwest Pacific coast.
At the time of the first federal census, in , the population of the United States was 3,, Between and , the population almost quadrupled; between and , it tripled; and between and , it almost doubled. During the s and s, however, the growth rate slowed steadily, declining from 2. The population has aged: the median age of the population increased from Suburbs have absorbed most of the shift in population distribution since The capital city, Washington, D.
District of Columbia , had a population of 4,, in that year. Other major metropolitan areas and their estimated populations include: New York, 18,,; Los Angeles , 12,,; Chicago , 8,,; Dallas , 4,,; Houston, 4,,; Philadelphia, 5,,; San Diego , 2,,; and Phoenix, 3,, Major cities can be found throughout the United States.
The majority of the population of the United States is of European origin, with the largest groups having primary ancestry traceable to the United Kingdom , Germany , and Ireland ; many Americans report multiple ancestries. According to American Community Survey estimates, about Native Americans including Alaskan Natives account for about 0.
About 1. About Some Native American societies survived the initial warfare with land-hungry white settlers and retained their tribal cultures. Their survival, however, has been on the fringes of North American society, especially as a result of the implementation of a national policy of resettling Native American tribes on reservations.
In , estimates place the number of Native Americans including Alaska Natives at 2,, The number of those who claim mixed Native American and white racial backgrounds is estimated at 1,,; the estimate for mixed Native American and African American ancestry was , The largest single tribal grouping is the Cherokee, with about , people. The Navajo account for about , people, the Chippewa fro 92, people, and the Sioux for 67, people. The s and s saw successful court fights by Native Americans in Alaska, Maine, South Dakota , and other states to regain tribal lands or to receive cash settlements for lands taken from them in violation of treaties during the s.
The black and African American population in was estimated at 34,,, with the majority still residing in the South , the region that absorbed most of the slaves brought from Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries.
About 1,, people claimed mixed black and white ethnicity. Two important regional migrations of blacks have taken place: 1 a " Great Migration " to the North, commencing in , and 2 a small but then unprecedented westward movement beginning about Both migrations were fostered by wartime demands for labor and by postwar job opportunities in northern and western urban centers.
More than three out of four black Americans live in metropolitan areas, notably in Washington, D. Large-scale federal programs to ensure equality for African Americans in voting rights, public education, employment, and housing were initiated after the historic Supreme Court ruling that barred racial segregation in public schools.
By , however, in the midst of growing and increasingly violent expressions of dissatisfaction by black residents of northern cities and southern rural areas, the federal Civil Rights Commission reported that integration programs were lagging. Throughout the s, s, and s, the unemployment rate among nonwhites in the United States was at least double that for whites, and school integration proceeded slowly, especially outside the South.
Also included in the US population are a substantial number of persons whose lineage can be traced to Asian and Pacific nationalities, chiefly Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Indian, Korean, and Vietnamese. The Chinese population is highly urbanized and concentrated particularly in cities of over , population, mostly on the West Coast and in New York City. According to estimates, there are over 2. Asian Indians are the next largest group of Asians with over 2.
About 2. The Japanese population has risen steadily from a level of 72, in to about , in Hawaii has been the most popular magnet of Japanese emigration. Most Japanese in California were farmers until the outbreak of World War II , when they were interned and deprived of their landholdings; after the war, most entered the professions and other urban occupations.
It is important to note, however, that the designation of Hispanic or Latino applies to those who are of Latin American descent; these individuals may also belong to white, Asian, or black racial groups.
Although Mexicans in the 21st century were still concentrated in the Southwest, they have settled throughout the United States; there are over 25 million Mexicans in the country. Spanish-speaking Puerto Ricans, who often represent an amalgam of racial strains, have largely settled in the New York metropolitan area, where they partake in considerable measure of the hardships and problems experienced by other immigrant groups in the process of settling in the United States; there are about 3.
Since , many Cubans have settled in Florida and other eastern states. As of , there are about 1. The primary language of the United States is English, enriched by words borrowed from the languages of Indians and immigrants, predominantly European.
Very early English borrowed from neighboring French speakers such words as shivaree, butte, levee , and prairie; from German, sauerkraut, smearcase , and cranberry; from Dutch, stoop, spook , and cookie; and from Spanish, tornado, corral, ranch , and canyon. From various West African languages , blacks have given English jazz, voodoo , and okra.
When European settlement began, Indians living north of Mexico spoke about different languages now held to belong to 58 different language families. Only 2 such families have contributed noticeably to the American vocabulary: Algonkian in the Northeast and Aztec-Tanoan in the Southwest.
From Algonkian languages, directly or sometimes through Canadian French, English has taken such words as moose, skunk, caribou, opossum, wood-chuck , and raccoon for New World animals; hickory, squash , and tamarack for New World flora; and succotash, hominy, mackinaw, moccasin, tomahawk, toboggan , and totem for various cultural items. From Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, terms such as tomato, mesquite, coyote, chili, tamale, chocolate , and ocelot have entered English, largely by way of Spanish.
A bare handful of words come from other Indian language groups, such as tepee from Dakota Siouan, catalpa from Creek, sequoia from Cherokee, hogan from Navaho, and sockeye from Salish, as well as cayuse from Chinook. Professional dialect research, initiated in Germany in and in France in , did not begin in the United States until , in connection with the Linguistic Atlas of New England — This kind of research, requiring trained field-workers to interview representative informants in their homes, subsequently was extended to the entire Atlantic Coast, the north-central states, the upper Midwest, the Pacific Coast, the Gulf states, and Oklahoma.
The New England atlas, the Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest — 76 , and the first two fascicles of the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States have been published, along with three volumes based on Atlantic Coast field materials. Also published or nearing publication are atlases of the north-central states, the Gulf states, and Oklahoma. In other areas, individual dialect researchers have produced more specialized studies.
The definitive work on dialect speech, the American Dialect Society's monumental Dictionary of American Regional English , began publication in Dialect studies confirm that standard English is not uniform throughout the country. Major regional variations reflect patterns of colonial settlement, dialect features from England having dominated particular areas along the Atlantic Coast and then spread westward along the three main migration routes through the Appalachian system.
Dialectologists recognize three main dialects — Northern, Midland, and Southern — each with subdivisions related to the effect of mountain ranges and rivers and railroads on population movement. Midland speech extends in a wide band across the United States: there are two main subdivisions, North Midland and South Midland.
South Midland speech was carried by the Scotch-Irish from Pennsylvania down the Shenandoah Valley into the southern Appalachians, where it acquired many Southern speech features before it spread westward into Kentucky, Tennessee, southern Missouri, Arkansas, and northeast Texas. Its speakers are likely to say plum peach rather than clingstone peach and snake doctor rather than dragonfly. Horse and hoarse do not sound alike, and creek rhymes with meek. Corn bread is corn pone , and you-all is standard for the plural.
In the western part of the United States, migration routes so crossed and intermingled that no neat dialect boundaries can be drawn, although there are a few rather clear population pockets. Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority in the United States; according to estimates, about The majority of Spanish speakers live in the Southwest, Florida, and eastern urban centers. Refugee immigration since the s has greatly increased the number of foreign-language speakers from Latin America and Asia.
Educational problems raised by the presence of large blocs of non-English speakers led to the passage in of the Bilingual Educational Act, enabling children to study basic courses in their first language while they learn English. A related school problem is that of black English , a Southern dialect variant that is the vernacular of many black students now in northern schools. US religious traditions are predominantly Judeo-Christian and most Americans identify themselves as Protestants of various denominations , Roman Catholics, or Jews.
As of , over million Americans reported affiliation with a religious group. The single largest Christian denomination is the Roman Catholic Church , with membership in estimated at Immigration from Ireland, Italy, Eastern Europe , French Canada, and the Caribbean accounts for the predominance of Roman Catholicism in the Northeast, Northwest, and some parts of the Great Lakes region, while Hispanic traditions and more recent immigration from Mexico and other Latin American countries account for the historical importance of Roman Catholicism in California and throughout most of the sunbelt.
More than any other US religious body, the Roman Catholic Church maintains an extensive network of parochial schools. Jewish immigrants settled first in the Northeast, where the largest Jewish population remains; at last estimates, about 6. According to data from , there are about 3. Approximately , people are proclaimed atheists. Over 94 million persons in the United States report affiliation with a Protestant denomination.
Baptists predominate below the Mason-Dixon line and west to Texas. By far the nation's largest Protestant group is the Southern Baptist Convention, which has about A concentration of Methodist groups extends westward in a band from Delaware to eastern Colorado; the largest of these groups, the United Methodist Church has about 8. A related group, the African Methodist Episcopal Church , has about 2. Lutheran denominations, reflecting in part the patterns of German and Scandinavian settlement, are most highly concentrated in the north-central states, especially Minnesota and the Dakotas.
This group claimed 3. Other prominent Protestant denominations and their estimated adherents include the Episcopal Church 2,,, and the United Church of Christ 1,, A number of Orthodox Christian denominations are represented in the United States, established by immigrants hoping to maintain their language and culture in a new world.
The largest group of Orthodox belong to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, which has about 1. A number of religious groups, which now have a worldwide presence, originated in the United States. The group migrated westward, in part to escape persecution, and has played a leading role in the political, economic, and religious life of Utah; Salt Lake City is the headquarters for the church.
As of , there are about 5. They believe that Biblical prophecies are being fulfilled through world events and that the kingdom of God will be established on earth at the end of the great war described in the Bible.
In , there were about 1 million members in the Untied States. A primary belief of the group is that physical injury and illness might be healed through the power of prayer and the correction of false beliefs. The Mother Church is located in Boston, Massachusetts. Christian Scientists have over 1, congregations in the nation. The Seventh-Day Adventists were also established in the Untied States by William Miller , a preacher who believed that the second coming of Christ would occur between and Though his prediction did not come true, many of his followers continued to embrace other practices such as worship on Saturday, vegetarianism, and a focus on preparation for the second coming.
Railroads have lost not only the largest share of intercity freight traffic, their chief source of revenue, but passenger traffic as well. Shenandoah opposed the application. After a hearing, the district court concluded, as required by the statute, that the trustee was unable to obtain credit without granting a senior lien and that adequate protection existed to guarantee the existing lienholders the "indubitable equivalent" of their interests.
The court, therefore, granted the trustee's application 2 and subsequently granted a second application to sell surplus and obsolete equipment free of any creditor interest. On appeal, Shenandoah contends that 1 the trustee's efforts to obtain additional loans were insufficient to establish that credit was not available without granting the senior lien, and 2 the district court erred in concluding that adequate protection existed with respect to both the superpriority loan and the sale of surplus property.
We see no merit in either of these contentions. The record clearly indicates that the trustee contacted other financial institutions in the immediate geographic area and was unsuccessful. The statute imposes no duty to seek credit from every possible lender before concluding that such credit is unavailable. This is particularly true when, as the court determined here, time is of the essence in an effort to preserve a vulnerable seasonal enterprise.
The district court found that the trustee had demonstrated by a good faith effort that credit was not available without the senior lien. We see no error in that determination. Our conclusion is not undermined by Shenandoah's suggestion on appeal that it stood ready to lend the additional funds without requiring the senior lien.
It is clear from the record that Shenandoah's offer was conditioned upon the trustee's acknowledgement of both the validity of Shenandoah's claimed pre-petition lien and of the amount of its claimed pre-petition debt. Both of these factors are in dispute and, indeed, are the subject of ongoing litigation. We conclude that neither the trustee nor the court was required to consider this conditional offer as an indication that credit was available without the senior lien.
The question of whether Shenandoah's interest in the debtor's property was adequately protected from the consequences of the superpriority loan and the sale of surplus property is a more complex issue but one that we find was also properly resolved by the district court.
The Code states in section 3 that adequate protection may be provided by assuring a creditor of the "indubitable equivalent" of its interest in the estate. Although there is contrary authority in bankruptcy law, 3 we conclude that a judicial determination of such adequate protection is a question of fact rooted in measurements of value and the credibility of witnesses.
See In re Martin, F. Therefore, unless the district court's conclusion was "clearly erroneous," its decision that Shenandoah was adequately protected must be affirmed. Anderson v. Bessemer City, N. Shenandoah seeks to avoid this rigorous standard of review by arguing that the district court committed an error of law when it held that adequate protection existed in a supposed equity cushion between the amount of Shenandoah's interest and the value of the estate.
We disagree. It is clear from a reading of section of the Bankruptcy Code and its accompanying legislative history that estimates of value made during bankruptcy proceedings are "binding only for the purposes of the specific hearing and Here, we do not find that the district court mechanically applied the valuation determined in the earlier proceeding in order to conclude that an equity cushion existed.
Because that conclusion had been reached only five months earlier and was the product of an extensive inquiry, the district court was clearly correct in considering it as continuing evidence of value. The court did not, however, rely solely on Judge Kamlowsky's finding. We emphasize that under the facts of this case in which the constraints of passing time weighed heavily, the court was not required to engage in a new battle of appraisers that could have fatally prolonged the proceedings and obviated any need for a new loan by rendering further operation of the resort impossible.
We, therefore, hold that an equity cushion was properly determined. Excellent quality home with 3 bedrooms and 2 baths, 3 car garage, terrace above garage.
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