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A glossary of hip-hop terms is provided at the end of the volume as a quick reference for the most frequently used terms. In the best of hip-hop traditions, this volume started out as a genuine grassroots endeavour. Several of the chapters in this volume were first presented at these two venues, while others were explicitly solicited for this volume.
I am grateful to all of the authors for their willingness to sub- ject their work to numerous revisions. Sarah Simeziane took on the daunting task of editorial assistant which she performed with brio into the small hours of the morning, and for that I would like to thank her.
Thanks also go to the many colleagues who served as anonymous reviewers: this volume is decidedly better because of your input. The journey has been fascinating, and it continues. Notes 1. In other words, rap is the vocal part of the music which is produced by MCs, while hip hop embraces the whole of the culture, including all those who produce it and the fans who consume it cf. Given the enduring centrality of rap in hip-hop culture, the two are often used interchangeably, and so they will be used in this introduc- tion, save when the difference between them is at issue.
Collins, ; Samuels, Basil [of Caesarea] especially con- demned the practice of performing the Greek lyre and other instruments. Collins, Reflections on Hip Hop. The stories of composer Dmitri Shostakovich — and Sergei Diaghilev — , founder of the Ballets Russes, come to mind here.
For a recent take on the contested origins of hip hop, see Alim, , pp. This incorporation of features from multiple sources is, of course, not unique to hip hop. Media theorist Marshall McLuhan is credited with coining this term in the early s as a way of capturing in a single term the increasing amount of interaction between people who are not physically co-present and the heightened social awareness and responsibility that emanates from this contact. Several of the chapters in this volume contain references to websites where tracks, lyrics and information about the artists are equally available.
Forgery, in this sense, may be considered an extreme case of lack of authenticity. A frequent occurrence at the workshops of famous Renaissance painters and sculptors. As in the case of Argentine Tangueros. As in the case of the Bauls of Bengal. Stoneking, and white rapper Eminem all come to mind here. In he travelled to Crete. After a six month period of wandering from village to village encountering local musicians, he settled in the town of Hania on the west of the island and began studying the Cretan Lyra with its great master Kostas Mountakis.
This apprenticeship was to last for many years. Similarly, the Wikipedia entry for C. Until he was twelve, Mathers and his mother moved between various cities and towns in Missouri. Although he was enrolled at Lincoln High School in Warren, he frequently participated in freestyle battles at Osborn High School across town, gaining the approval of underground hip hop audiences. After repeating the ninth grade three times due to truancy, he dropped out of high school at age Subjects covered in [his debut album] Infinite included his struggles with raising his newborn daughter Hailie Jade Scott while on limited funds and his strong desire to get rich.
This is not to deny the Black lineage of US hip hop but rather to identify this more closely with the experiences of a certain section of the African American community, situated in place and time. References Alim, H.
Finegan and J. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. Alim, A. Ibrahim and A. Androutsopoulos, J. Aristotle c. Translation and Commentary by Stephen Halliwell. London: Duckworth. Bauman, R.
Bauman ed. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. Bourdieu, P. Cambridge: Polity. Caponi, G. University of Massachusetts Press. Clarke, S. Journal of English Linguistics, — Collins, G. The New York Times, 29 August , p. Franklin, M. Garrett, P. Language in Society, 34, — Hurt, B. Kelley, R. Basu and S. Kitwana, B. New York: Basic Civitas.
Oxford: Blackwell. Mercer ed. New York: Routledge, pp. Myers, D. New Criterion, 8, 61— Newman, M. Osumare, H. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Pennycook, A. New York: Routledge. Samuels, D. Forman and M. Routledge: New York, pp. Smitherman, G. Percelay, S. Dweck and M. Ivey eds , Double Snaps. New York: Quill. Reprinted in L.
Monaghan and J. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. There is by now sufficient evidence that English is an important resource of transnational hip-hop discourse on a global scale Androutsopoulos, However, local differences in the societal status of English — e.
Less attention has been paid to a second dimension of multilingual hip hop, i. In Germany, the set- ting of this paper, recognized minority languages include Sorbian and Romani, while migrant languages are much more numerous, including Turkish, Italian, Greek, Russian and so on.
Against that backdrop, the first question of this chapter is whether, to what extent, and how rappers of migrant background use migrant languages as a resource for their lyrics. The analysis, based on a sample of record releases reaching from the early s to the mid s, aims to offer insights into a lesser-studied constellation of linguistic diversity in hip hop, thereby complementing.
A second question addressed in this chapter concerns the study of multilingualism in rap lyrics generally. The relevant background to this question is the relation of multilingual lyrics to everyday multilingualism. With regard to the latter, song lyrics may originate in spontaneous improvisation, but they subsequently go through sev- eral stages of editing, in which artists use literacy to optimize the rhyme and other formal properties of their lyrics and to tailor them to rhythmic constraints, thereby taking into account genre conventions and audience expectations.
The final outcome of this process i. Moreover, while everyday multilingual practices are usually set in private and informal situations, rap lyrics — at least on stage and in releases — are addressed to large and heterogeneous audiences, i. Language style in lyrics needs therefore to be studied as an outcome of strategic styling decisions within specific social and historical contexts.
This shift does not reflect language change on the part of the artists, but is rather moti- vated by a shift in their target audiences: as Algerian Rai music became more popular in France, artists and producers emphasized the use of French in the titles and refrains of their songs, hoping to increase their chances of exposure to a French audience.
In such a case, a structural. As Sarkar and Winer argue, code-switching in song lyrics is a very different phenomenon from code-switching in conversation, as it is neither spontaneous, nor is it intimate. When code-switching moves into the arena of public discourse, discourse intended for large audiences of strangers and carefully pre-written at that, it requires a different approach to analysis. Sarkar and Winer, , p. Rappers of migrant back- ground have used hip hop as a means to express discourses of migration and ethnicity, thereby mobilizing immigrant languages, albeit in his- torically different patterns.
Using concepts from multilingualism research, I then clarify the distinction between the base language and embedded languages in a song as well as the notion of symbolic lan- guage use. Following that, I discuss the organization of multilingualism in German migrant rap, outlining how the use of migrant languages is constrained by the typical generic structure of a song.
I suggest that language choices tend to coincide with genre boundaries e. In the concluding discussion, I develop an explanation of these patterns in terms of audience and market orientations, suggesting that a symbolic use of migrant languages allows artists to make ethnicity claims while targeting a mainstream, monolingual audience.
I also discuss differences between the German case and the hip-hop discourse of other countries. Overall, the chapter aims at demonstrating that multilingualism in rap lyrics is a complex discourse process that cannot be properly understood without taking generic and institutional factors into account. The emergence of migrant hip hop in Germany dates back to the aftermath of German unification.
It coincided with an increase in xenophobic discourse and a wave of assaults against migrants and asylum seekers. Migrant rap artists reacted against racist aggression and appropriated the tradition of protest or message rap to articulate their voices and viewpoints. And while German was the predominant language in the early years, this second phase witnesses a turn to migrant languages — sometimes exclusively in Turkish through- out a record, sometimes in several languages in the same record or song.
However, migration and ethnicity were not always prominent among their chosen. Different trends need to be distinguished in this third phase. One of them is Brothers Keepers, a collaboration of Afro-German and international artists who came together after a series of racist assaults in Their music centres on issues of racism, discrimination and Afro- German identity.
A second focal point is the Berlin rap scene, widely identified as battle or hardcore rap, featuring successful artists of migrant background such as Kool Savas, Eko Fresh and Bushido. These do not conceal their migrant origin, but do not turn it into a centre- point of their discourse either.
In their non-political stance, localness i. On the other hand, this phase witnessed successful rappers of migrant background — including Savas and especially Fler — appropriating Nazi metaphors and refer- ences, stirring controversy among critics and educators see Putnam and Littlejohn, , this volume.
The analysis is based on a small sample of 15 CD releases corresponding to approximately songs from all three phases of ethnic rap in Germany.
This sample is not statistically repre- sentative, but it does include well-known migrant-background artists and releases and may therefore be regarded as qualitatively valid. Based on the generic scheme discussed below, each track was examined with respect to the distribution of languages, patterns of juxtaposition in the lyrics, the semantics and pragmatics of minority language use, and resemblance to typical discourse functions of code-switching.
The notion of base language is usually applied to bilingual interaction Auer, and transferred here to the song or the release as units of analysis. Identifying the base language of a song or release provides a. By and large, German is the base language of the rap songs in my data, with migrant languages switched into for shorter or longer portions of certain tracks. However, not all rap songs have a single base language.
Some bilingual songs or even entire releases are characterized by a balanced distribution between two or more languages. Assuming that understanding the lyrics of a rap song is important to hip-hop audiences, we may say that the base language of a rap song defines its primary audience. This might seem trivial for global lan- guages such as English, but when it comes to the migrant languages of this study, the choice of a base language has obvious consequences: A rap song with, say, Turkish as the base language effectively restricts its main audience, as far as understanding the lyrics is concerned, to L1 or L2 speakers of Turkish.
But linguistic choices in music are relevant not only in terms of propositional content, but also with regard to the mere presence of a language. A language comes to symbolize to stand for its speakers or the country in which it is spoken.
As researchers of advertising and popular music have argued, the symbolic meaning of language choice is understood even if audiences are oblivious to its communicative dimension, i. In hip-hop scholarship, Bennett makes a telling observation to this effect: While working as a youth worker in Frankfurt, I was invited to sit on the judging panel of a talent competition for local bands in the neighbouring town of Schwalbach.
As well as those bands taking part in the competition, a number of other local groups had been booked to provide entertainment. Nevertheless, the Turkish youth remaining in the hall continued to act in a hostile fashion and accused the group of being Nazis. Bennett, , p. The notions of base and symbolic language choice offer an analytic angle on the use of migrant languages in rap lyrics.
When these are non- base and their comprehension cannot be guaranteed, their meaning is sought not in their propositional content but in their function as a symbol of their groups of speakers. I identify three diagnostic features of symbolic language choice: amount, content and generic distribution. Even if a language is the base language of a particular song, it may be cast as symbolic on a larger scale, i.
Content: the propositional content conveyed by the symbolic lan- guage will typically refer to aspects of the respective ethnicity or minority group. The precise content conveyed by the symbolic language, and the context in which it is embedded, will of course vary.
Distribution: symbolic language choices tend to occur in particular parts of a rap song, as will be examined in detail below. Many instances of migrant language use in my data exhibit these three features, which co-occur and yield distinctive patterns of multilingual lyrics.
Figure 1. Its mother node, the record release, is the largest unit of analysis. The left branch represents. It seems important to emphasize that this scheme does not suggest that artists actually decide about the distribution of languages in such a top-down fashion.
What it does suggest is that choices of and switches between languages may take place on different levels of generic organi- zation, ranging from the macro-textual level of an entire release to the micro-level of juxtaposing codes within a stanza.
It also suggests that the shape of multilingualism in lyrics is constrained by genre: code- switches tend to coincide with boundaries between distinct parts of a rap song.
In my data, for instance, switches between chorus and stanza or between stanzas are much more common than switching and mixing within a stanza. As a result, genre structure provides an orientation to the production as well as interpretation of multilingual lyrics.
At most levels of this scheme, languages appear in a compartmentalized way. A song may contain two, three or even four languages, but these remain neatly separated from one another. The left branch of the diagram represents record releases that contain monolingual songs in two or more languages; for example, the Berlin-produced Fettfleck Sampler Volume One consists of songs in German, Turkish and English.
In some cases, there is just a single song in a language other than the base language of a release, and in my data this coincides with one migrant-language song on a German-language release. Because these are only skits of a duration of 1.
The right branch of the diagram turns to bi- or multilingual songs and identifies potential locations of language choice and code-switching. In interactional socio- linguistics and discourse analysis, bracketing and the related notion of framing have been used in the study of bilingualism in the media, notably in ethnic newspapers, web guestbook messages and emails see overview in Androutsopoulos, Hinrichs found Jamaican Creole appearing in the introductory and concluding greetings, terms of address and farewells of emails and web forum posts in English.
Bracketing is rich in pragmatic and social meaning. Its constituents contextualize the enclosed discourse and frame the relationship between the partners in an interaction. In rap, brackets typically draw on all sorts of audio material e. Using another language for bracketing makes that language and the ethnicity indexed by it relevant to the topic discussed or the social identities performed in the song.
In my data,. Here the bracket stages the social setting that is being narrated in the song, and this setting is presented, by means of language choice, as a Turkish one. Moving on to the body of a song, a first pattern of code-switching is between chorus and stanza, in that the chorus is cast in a different language than the stanza that precedes or follows it see examples 1 and 4 below.
The discourse meaning of such code-switching draws on the conventional function of the refrain, which is meant to be the most memorable part of a song, summarizing its message. The chorus entails a pragmatic contrast to the stanza, and code-switching may enhance that contrast. Code-switching into English for the chorus is quite common in German rap, whereas the use of other languages depends on artist and topic. Und dort nicht wie hier ein Where no different wind is ganz anderer Wind weht blowing, unlike here 4.
In den zwei Kulturen, in In the two cultures I have denen ich aufgewachsen bin, grown up in 5. Weil nicht nur die zwei Because not only do these Kulturen aufeinander cultures collide krachen 7.
Here, the Turkish chorus works interpretively on two levels. To those who are competent in Turkish, the chorus may provide an additional resource for meaning making perhaps evoking intertextuality and asso- ciative links between stanza and chorus. Those who are not competent in Turkish will still interpret the chorus — based on knowledge of its generic relationship to the stanza lyrics — as a symbol for one of the two cultures the song is about.
However, chorus-related code-switching may also work the other way around: My data includes the now defunct group Diaspora that was German-based but whose lyrics were predominantly in French. The base language of that song is therefore French, even though it targets a German-speaking audience.
Rap songs typically consist of two or more stanzas — defined as groups of usually 8 or 16 verses typically delimited by the chorus — and these may well be cast in a different language each. It is therefore common practice to find translations of non-German segments in the booklet or on the internet.
There are two sub-types of stanza-external code-switching in my data, depending on whether there is a change of speaker or not. In code-switching termi- nology, these are instances of participant-related code-switching Auer, This pattern is illustrated in example 2.
Blaise: Triple rois, triple foi, avale Three kings, triple faith, la polodringue swallow the unclear Torch: Alle Feinde erstarren wenn All enemies freeze when our unsere Stimmen erklingen voices sound out.
This is a trilingual song that defies an easy identification of a single base language. In this example, the meaning of code-switching is enforced by topical coherence: each rapper narrates a different take of the same story, i.
Multilingualism underscores that what is being narrated represents a collective experience that tran- scends linguistic borders. The second subtype of stanza-external code-switching is Bakhtinian double-voicing in the delivery of the same speaker across two or more stanzas.
This time code-switching coincides with a shift of voice, which is also a shift in narrative perspective. Da kommt ein besoffen Mann There comes a drunken man und setzt sich nebenan and sits next to me 3. Ich kann das gut verstehen, wir I can surely understand, we haben andere Sitten have different customs 8.
I want to ask you. Besides a heavy non-native accent, these lines include morphosyntactic features such as violation of the verb-second word order in German as in line 1 , bare infinitives, omission of articles, prepositions and adjective inflections. In Bakhtinian terms as elaborated by Rampton, in his analysis of language crossing , this is an instance of unidirectional double-voicing, the speaker sympathizing with the staged voice and its concerns. Language alternations within a stanza may come from different rappers or from the same rapper.
In the first case already illustrated in example 2 for the chorus two or more rappers alternate or overlap, each in their preferred language. Stanza-internal code-switching by the same rapper is quite rare in my data, and I shall discuss this in more detail below. Using classic distinctions in code-switching analysis, we may first note a few cases of inter-sentential stanza-internal switching, as illustrated by the next two examples.
In example 4 from , stanza-internal code-switching is motivated by a shift in topic. This is the only instance of Turkish in this song; note that the chorus is in English, showing how different linguistic choices may apply to different parts of a song. In other cases, the parts of a stanza delivered in a language other than German are more formulaic and bear an obvious referential or inter- textual relation to a specific ethnicity. Nicht nur der Haare auch des Not only of the hair, but of geistigen Spektrums spiritual width 3.
Ignorant against Mr. Ignorant Ruht in Frieden meine Helden Rest in peace my heroes the weil die Welt nichts taugt world is no good Here, as in other exam- ples, we see how symbolic language choices may come restricted to just a few lexical items, which are linked, referentially, metonymically or intertextually, to a specific ethnic group. Such usage has wider currency in my data, as illustrated by examples 6 and 7, which include interjec- tions, terms of address, or terms of abuse from migrant languages.
In example 7 — from a Greek-Turkish collaboration project between Kool Savas and Illmatic — most Greek lexis in the first stanza is meto- nymic to Greek ethnicity. The Greek discourse markers interjection in line 6, term of abuse in line 8 index a mixed speech style. In the chorus, both country names come in their respective language, and the appeal to unite the two comes in English. The song also features an intermezzo in Greek again talking about ethnicity and solidarity among migrants.
The stanza-internal insertion of migrant language discourse markers that is illustrated in examples 6 and 7 is qualitatively different from the patterns identified at higher nodes of the generic diagram see Fig. It goes beyond the straightforward ethnic symbolism that predominates in the remainder of the data; rather, it indexes a speech style that is associated with speakers of migrant background in Germany. The rap lyrics examined involve choices and juxtapositions of languages on several levels of discourse organization.
In still other cases, a song features different linguistic choices for a number of its parts, resulting in a com- plex distribution of languages.
We noted a wealth of migrant language bracketing,. German and migrant languages remain neatly separated in most of these songs, and switches to the latter tend to coincide with shifts between generic ele- ments. This pattern stands in stark contrast to research findings on the speech of second and third generation migrant-background youth in Germany, in which switching and mixing prevail Hinnenkamp, ; Kallmeyer and Keim, This is evidence against a simple equation of rap with conversational speech, at least with regard to migration-induced language contact.
However, the absence of stanza-internal code-switching and language mixing between German and migrant languages in the data does not reflect a closure against multi- lingualism in the lyrics of these artists or in German rap generally. Quite the contrary, the same artists who work so sparingly with migrant lan- guages are freely mixing English nonce borrowings and phrases in their German lyrics.
This suggests that migrant languages have a different status from, and less value than, English in the pop music domain.
However, the picture is actually more complex, because some migrant rap in Germany does feature migrant languages as predominant codes of a song or release, i.
This seems to work mainly for Turkish, the language of the largest ethnic group in Germany, since there are no complete other-language productions in other languages.
In order to make sense of these patterns, we need to take into account the stratification of pop music markets and their different kinds of audience. The use of migrant languages documented in this chapter is the outcome of a marketing strategy for cultural commodities addressed to the German-speaking hip-hop market.
This is consonant with the find- ings of Bentahila and Davies on the use of French in Algerian Rai music, as well as with findings from other sociolinguistic back- grounds such as Cuba, Argentina, Italy, Hungary; see, e. Such a link is of course not ubiquitous in the everyday discourse of migrant communities, where different codes may. I therefore read the prevailing distribution of migrant language choices in the rap lyrics examined here as an indica- tor of their mainly symbolic use: their contribution to propositional content is less relevant than their mere presence as ethnic identity symbols.
They make ethnolinguistic otherness visible, without impeding the communicative value of lyrics to majority audiences. Such a positioning seems characteristic for releases targeting the mainstream market, i. A more extensive base language- like use of other languages is accepted only if these languages are globally prestigious codes, hence especially English and to some extent French and Spanish note that the commercially successful multilingual project, Brothers Keepers, draw on precisely those languages.
Such niche markets provide more leeway for linguistic experiment and, as a consequence, a predominant use of migrant languages in rap lyrics may persist. In other words, different segments of the popular music market may also be thought of as differ- ent linguistic markets. Moreover, the persistence of communicative uses of migrant languages in rap lyrics may be favoured by the orienta- tion to another audience altogether.
More precisely, we note that productions that are monolingual in the migrant language may target audiences in the home country. In fact, the most well-known repre- sentatives of oriental hip hop, Cartel and Islamic Force, had their commercial success in Turkey rather than Germany.
Finally, it is worth pointing out that what ethnic German rappers do with multilingual resources seems strikingly limited when compared. In the US, Latino rap artists seem to work with code-switching much more intensively than their German counterparts. That said, I suggest that patterns of language contact in rap lyrics tend to index the status of multilingualism in a particular country.
In other words, the absence of minority language switching and mixing from the German data indicates its status quo of a dominantly monolingual nation-state. By contrast, traditionally and officially multilingual societies provide more fertile ground for artists to exploit additional dimensions of language contact and to explore connections between lyrical discourse and everyday talk.
However, more research is needed in order to check this hypothesis. Popular music is an important arena for the public display of bilin- gual and multilingual practices. Examining rap lyrics contributes to the study of linguistic diversity in the domain of global entertainment discourses.
However, it may be the case that this increasing acceptance goes hand in hand with a restriction of acceptable linguistic diversity to symbolic language usage.
More comparative research is needed here, and I suggest that the generic analysis framework presented in this chapter can facilitate further exploration. I am indebted to panel co-organizer Mela Sarkar, to Marina Terkourafi for her editorial support and to two anonymous reviewers. But see also Sarkar This is in striking contrast to what has happened in France, where migrant- background rappers especially of Maghreb origin never turned away from the majority language, thus indexing their audience as the majority society as a whole.
Verlan suggests that this is due to the fundamentally different understandings of the notion of citizenship in France and in Germany. An indicative discography is appended to this paper. Although lyrics are not conversational speech as discussed above , con- cepts from the study of bilingual interaction direct attention to sequential relations within a song and tie in well with an examination of the voices, i.
Turkish: lan ex. In example 5, for instance, we have: speaker-related switching on the stanza level German vs English ; stanza-internal switching in the delivery of the same artist switching from German to English ; and chorus-level switching in French.
It might of course be the case that these particular artists are monolingual or dominant in German; but this is a different story, which cannot be investigated on the same empirical and methodological basis.
Discography Aziza A. STF feat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. Alim, H. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Heller ed. Basingstoke, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. Auer, P. Auer ed. Language, Interaction and Identity.
Auzanneau, M. Barthes, R. Berkeley: University of California Press. Bennett, A. Media, Culture and Society, 21, 77— Bentahila, A. Cheshire, J. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 15, 6, — Fishman, J. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Goffman, E. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Greve, M. Kimminich ed. Gumperz, J.
Cambridge: University Press. Higgins, C. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Hinnenkamp, V. Kallmeyer, W. Androutsopoulos and A. Georgakopoulou eds , Discourse Constructions of Youth Identities. Kluge, B. Stemmler and T. Frankfurt a. Lee, J. World Englishes, 23, 3, — Hogan-Brun and S.
London: Taylor and Francis. Piller, I. Language in Society, 30, 2, — Putnam, M. Popular Music and Society, 30, 4, — Rampton, B. London: Routledge, pp. Sarkar, M. Journal of Language, Identity, and Educa- tion, 6, 2, — International Journal of Multi- lingualism, 3, 3, — Scholz, A. Androutsopoulos ed.
Sebba, M. Verlan, S. To the surprise of some, we may now include on this list rap music. Rap is about rhythm, rhymes, beat and powerful words, but rap is also a sort of refuge in which a marginalized group or minority can express freely who they are, what they suffer from, and their dreams and hopes Boucher, In France, rap artists generally are children of immigrants, for the most part of North African Muslim or of sub- Saharan African descent.
Androutsopoulos and Scholz , note that 92 per cent of rappers in France are of immigrant descent, the highest percentage in Europe in comparison to 60 per cent in Germany, 32 per cent in Spain, 4 per cent in Italy and zero per cent in Greece.
The rise of hip-hop groups in France has been accompanied by an increase in CD releases; between and , albums were released, approximately three times as many as in Italy albums and six times more than Spain 52 albums Androutsopoulos, In their lyrics, rappers often refer to their places of origin usually former French colonies , the postcolonial struggle Omoniyi, , and describe and express the difficulties related to migration, resettle- ment, assimilation, translocation and hybridization.
These phenomena are observable through analysis of the content of French rap discourse and the use of language in the lyrics. The objective.
In this case, code-switching plays the role of an identity construction tool and an identity marker for numerous hip-hop artists in France. In the United States of America, hip hop continues to attract scholars who endeavour to answer questions related to identity, multiculturalism and ethnicity Alim, ; Krims, But as Krims points out, there is a great need for research related to hip hop in the Francophone world where the colonial past is still very present in collective memory, and the interactions between the ex-colonizer and the ex-colonized are still being reconstructed and renegotiated Auzanneau, , Boucher , p.
Rap discourse becomes a medium for the immigrant postcolonial descendants to remind France of its colonial past and to voice their anger about racism and discrimination. By studying rap discourse light can be shed on the interactions and language of youth; specifically, children of immigrants with their multilayered identities.
This chapter is a small contribution to the study of hip-hop culture in the Francophone world. The languages used in hip-hop discourse in France consequently fulfil certain roles, represent distinct identities, and depict the social problems of youth in a context of immigration and postcolonialism. Despite the fact that French rap is an imported product — meaning it was not born in the streets of France, in compari- son to rap in the US that emerged from the streets of the South Bronx — they both flourished in an urban context.
As Cannon explains, to understand the rap movement in France it is necessary to know the historical and social events in France that gave birth to this musical genre; in particular, the industrial boom in the s that brought immi- grant workers to France, mainly from North African ex-colonies such as Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, as well as from places such as Senegal, Mali and the Caribbean.
The French rap scene, in turn, has become associated with the culture of the banlieues, notably immigrant families and the off- spring of immigrant parents who are searching for identity, torn between two cultures and languages cf. Auzanneau, Cannon, According to Calvet, the rap movement in France emerged as a result of a marginalized group who suffered from unemployment, school failure, and being torn between the culture of their immigrant parents and French culture , p.
For the most part, however, code-switching has been analysed from a syntactic perspective with the ultimate aim of drawing universal constraints. In addition, Bokamba makes a distinction between code-switching and code-mixing, limiting code- switching to the insertion of constituents between sentence boundaries, and using code-mixing to refer to the alternation of codes within the same sentence.
This distinction is still open to debate. On the other hand, Myers-Scotton created a model that postulates that during code-switching there is a hierarchical relationship between the domi- nant or matrix language ML , and an embedded language EL , whose constituents EL are incorporated into the ML following the morpho- syntactic structure of the ML.
Another important question concerns the distinction between code- switching and borrowing. Gumperz and Cook-Gumperz charac- terize borrowing as a word or a short sentence that is incorporated into a different code.
Heath , on the other hand, in his study of code- switching in Moroccan Arabic, recognizes the difficulty in distinguish- ing between a borrowed word and code-switching. For his study, the criteria of frequency and pronunciation proved problematic, leading him to suggest that a clear distinction between code-switching and borrowing could not be made.
Analysing code-switching between French and Arabic in Rai a genre of music from Algeria , Davies and Bentahila added to this rich debate by asking whether we can even analyse code-switching in song lyrics within previously established code- switching frameworks, given the fact that most of the work previously done on code-switching evaluated spontaneous speech. Picone, Given the complexities that this research has revealed, this chapter neither attempts to answer these important questions nor to dispute them.
Davies and Bentahila note that this occurred already in songs in medieval Europe as well as in muwashshah songs, in which scholarly Arabic and Hebrew verses alternated with refrains in the quotidian language of the region , p. Mixing languages in hip hop likewise seems to be common. In studies of Quebecois rap, Sarkar and Winer and Sarkar suggest that the use of more than one language allows rappers to represent the cultural diversity of Quebec without the need to master the languages used.
This dialectic between local and global culture cf. In French rap, code-switching is not as noticeable as in Moroccan or Quebecois rap. After a brief attempt at tossing in American English and imi- tating American rappers, French rap rapidly developed its own means of expression proper to the French banlieue by performing mostly in French Pecqueux, Using the Victoires de la Musique nominees allowed me to collect a sample of the most famous perform- ers in the French music industry without bias towards personal preference.
As a native speaker of Arabic and French with near-native pro- ficiency in English and a good knowledge of Verlan, I transcribed the Verlan in consultation with two other native speakers of French and Arabic who also have a strong command of Verlan. Once the text of the lyrics of all four albums had been obtained, Arabic, French and Verlan were chosen as the primary objects of study, as Creole, Spanish or other languages were virtually nonexistent in the four selected albums.
With regards to English, despite the fact that the variety taught in French schools is modelled on British English, in the hip-hop domain, the dominant variety of English seems to be American English, and more specifically African American English AAE. Finally, Verlan is a spoken variety born in the working- class, immigrant suburbs of the wider Parisian region Lefkowitz, ,.
Her father is Greek Cypriot and her mother is French. In the group faced legal action from then Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy for their violent lyrics that were perceived to be racist or anti-Semitic Mouloud, In the corpus analysed, all rappers use some Arabic as opposed to other French music genres e.
This may be due to the socio-cultural background of the rappers or to the genre itself, suggesting that rap is a genre used to express diverse sociolinguistic and cultural backgrounds.
The use of Arabic in French rap suggests an identification with a North African community. The degree to which Arabic is used varies among rappers, and this variation does not seem to occur along geographical lines: if we compare Parisian and Marseille rappers, it is not easy to discern a clear trend. In the South, Gomez et Dubois code-switch into Arabic to a significant degree, and invited Amine, a popular Rai singer of North African origin, to sing in Arabic perhaps because they are not necessarily fluent in Arabic themselves.
Arabic is solicited mostly in reference to the culture and practices of countries such as Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, as exemplified in a passage by Akhenaton, the leader of IAM, in which he evokes his modest social class background as well as his Italian immigrant origin. In this passage, Akhenaton expresses his belonging to the North African community by referring to his children as a mix of Italian and North African cultures as symbolized by the word douez, a term describing the sauce of the tagine, a traditional North African dish, as seen in the following extract:.
The fact that Arabic is the official language in North African coun- tries and Islam the most practised religion also leads to Arabic often being used to refer to Muslim beliefs and cultural practices. It is com- mon in French rap lyrics to read lexemes such as hallal, designating an object or an action that is permissible to use according to Islamic law and custom, and ibliss and shetane, both referring to an active force representing negative moral acts in the Muslim religion as seen in extracts 3, 4 and 5.
Expressing a connection to the Muslim faith goes back to contemporary. Applying and emphasizing Islamic principles allows rappers to inject moral codes into their work, thereby transforming their rap into con- scious rap Lin, Extract 5 provides an example where Sniper denounces the stereotype of a Muslim as a terrorist by mentioning Robert Hue, a former French Communist Party leader with a beard, and Osama Bin Laden, the Islamic terrorist.
The text also exposes their political views by condemning the Iraq war, and the political actions of Israel in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. In addition, Arabic in French rap discourse can also have a function of a mocking self-description as seen in the following passage by Gomez et Dubois:.
Code-switching in Arabic in this context refers to two actions forbidden by the socio-cultural background of the Muslim youth living in France, and the use of ghirr khabta and zetla becomes a code to refer to forbidden actions, thus enhancing the feeling of solidarity and creating a community of practice of its own.
The hip-hop performers then come to represent a group of rebels who spend their time drinking and smoking drugs, an image that has very often been attributed to French youth living in the banlieues. Finally, code-switching in Arabic, as shown in extract 7, is also used by rappers to express nostalgia towards the country of origin, while acknowledging the social problems of assimilation and hybridization.
The second and third generations of immigrants are still considered foreigners or outsiders in their country of birth France , and are perse- cuted because of their religious beliefs, yet are not able to integrate in the country of their forefathers either.
You are also in my shoes? In France, perceptions of the English language and American culture seem to be shaped by the media i. In French rap, code-switching into English becomes some sort of a reminder of the origin, the base, the lingua franca by which French rap- pers build solidarity with the larger, global hip-hop community while rearticulating and localizing it to attest to the authenticity of the ban- lieue culture. In the corpus analysed, English language in rap texts tends to be linked to violence or the degrading of women using sexual references Boucher, This influence is perhaps nurtured by the media scandals of some famous American rappers such as Tupac, Snoop Dogg and others.
This trend is reflected in the use of English words describing violent acts — as in extract 9 — by the band IAM, in which the text in English is very explicit, referring to vandal- ism and sexual acts, whereas the lyrics in French have a much more poetic and softer tone.
Code-switching in English may imply a need to reproduce an image of violence associated with the banlieue lifestyle, to which rap is intrinsically linked; an image of youth involved in drugs and illegal activities, following the path of American rap as an act of rebellion. The use of English may then allow rap artists to transcend certain socio-cultural taboos as it sounds easier to talk about explicit physical violence such as rape and other violent acts in English, a foreign language in France, rather than in French.
English provides a certain linguistic camouflage whereby singing in English becomes mimicking without being really responsible for the content of the lyrics. Verlan is a sociolect, a variety spoken by a group aimed at excluding certain people from the conversation.
Verlan initially functions as encryption used in playful contexts and as an in-group identity marker in the ban- lieue. As for the topics that occur with code-switching into Verlan, the analysis shows that this variety is often used to depict social and economic aspects of suburban life in France Calio, , and more precisely the struggles of a gen- eration of descendents of immigrants who face social problems related to assimilation, as exemplified in extracts 10 and This collective identity transcends their diverse coun- tries of origin, religion and sociolinguistic factors as a response to the economic and social conditions they all share.
Nicolas Sarkozy famously used this word to describe rioters in one of the Parisian banlieue in while he was Minister of the Interior Dumay, In extract 12, the word racaille in Verlan caillera is used in an ironic, sarcastic way to describe how the banlieusards believe they are perceived by the French people.
This identity construction is shaped around the dialectic of banlieusards versus non-banlieusards; us, the youth of the banlieue, and them, those who have an easy and happy life. An analysis of 57 songs, represented here by selected passages from. The use of English, on the other hand, centres mostly around topics pertaining to violence, reflecting the American gangsta hip hop image of the discourse of rebellion. Finally, Verlan is associated with the youth culture of the banlieue i. Despite the fact that French rappers claim to rap only in French, it is possible that rap music in France is a genre where mixing two or more codes is less likely to be criticized for not respecting the grammatical and stylistic norms of the French language.
One may even say that it is a necessity to be from a diverse ethnic background in order to become a French rapper. Rappers in France project a multicultural, multi- racial identity that allows them to align themselves with a diverse immigrant community as is perceived to be the norm in French hip hop. The use of various languages in rap lyrics is a provocative mirror of the multicultural, multi-layered identity of the French rappers and the youth of the banlieue as well as a reflection of ideologies held by hip- hop artists and youth about these languages.
The linguistic patchwork described in this chapter acts as an identity marker for the youth of the banlieue. Using code-switching allows rappers to construct a cryptic discourse where the language used plays a poetic, aesthetic and tran- scultural role as well as serves as a riposte to the dominant sociocultural norm in place. The fertile ground for research represented by the hip- hop culture in France may help overcome the sociocultural challenges of assimilation where numerous government policies have failed.
Acknowledgements I would like to thank Christopher Stewart for his valuable comments on the very early draft of this chapter.
Variably characterized as a sociolect or youth slang, Verlan is a form of verbal wordplay that involves flipping the syllables of a word.
The coding criteria in the song extracts are: French is in italics, Arabic in bold, English in Roman, and Verlan in bold and italics. The term pieds-noirs lit. Gomez et Dubois , Flics et hors la loi. IAM , Revoir un printemps. Popular Music and Society, 26, 4, — Durand ed. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, pp. Bazin, H. Advances in Psychology, 83, — Paris: Editions Autrement.
Bokamba, E. Boucher, M. Bowen, J. Chicago, March 14—16, Calio, J. Calvet, L. Cannon, S. Hargreaves and M. McKinney eds. Cutler, C. Popular Music and Society, 24, — Davies, E. Multilingua, 25, — Dumay, J. Durand, A. Oxford: Scarecrow. Ferguson, C. Word, 15, — Gardner-Chloros, P.
Milroy and P. New York: Cambridge Univer- sity Press, pp. Gumperz ed. Hargreaves, A. McKinney eds , Post- colonial Cultures in France. Heath, J. London: Kegan Paul.
Huq, R. Jacono, J. Krims, A. Lapassade, G. Paris: Editions Loris Talmart. And we're with 38 other members of the were nearing the boiling point. I'm going to keep trying until "Scott's 'toy panel' put together County on his hand-picked to shoot others on the streets. He says -having "Stand your ground is now Smith added, "we refuse to the bill included: Larcenia Bull- with us.
He and the Repub- in Tallahassee. The Republi- young adults like The Dream our rallying cry but that's just return to the days of the wild, ard, Tony Hill, Chris Smith and licans have to see that we're in cans are in the majority and Defenders illustrates that the start because we need to wild west.
But the the primary and the run off myou Oareain effect,nmakinga use of a boycott remains a vi is barred from seeking reelec- elections. Since there is no inthe group could not call for statement.
Scott needs to lis- able means of changing publ tion for a third consecutive cumbent I think I stand a great a boycott because of already ten to the whispers before they sentiment and securing jus- term," the court said.
Tourism is tice for all citizens. Attorney Dunn's attorney, J. Plans, Hardemon says his campaign bers chose to lose their reg- the number one economic en- H. Smith proved that when said Wednesday he was happy will focus on public safety, more istration money and remain gine that supports the State of he led a successful boycott on 'the Third DCA agreed with the affordable housing and getting home.
He noted that both reg- Florida. Does he really want to Miami Beach businesses after a handle on the City's finances. Once the na- Blacks continued to be ignored Spence-Jones was on vaca- Dunn reiterated that the lawmuch lower than in prior con- tion perceives Florida in a neg and denied access to business tion with her family but did suit he filed was "never about ventions. LEE, JR. Are boycotts' an effective for your love, support the suit against the fy lepY cm ms in bth Florida's stand your ground Leroy Jones, 41, director of means of invoking change?
I respect b laws and the impact that such Neighbors and Neighbors Asso- Just ask 'longtime, Miami- the courts decision thought that the city legislation could have on the citation [NANA] in Liberty City, them in their pocket and they'll based attorney H. Smith and I will continue attorney had misinterState's economic future. He believes Making money is their primary According to Smith, he myvc and what the people your ground be reviewed with that a boycott can be effective concern and a boycott could organized a group called Boy- ser i ly, wanted toonlyy two nity.
Smith de- WERE.. Doctrine so that one can only changed or repealed so those will not be necessary and that picted Miami as the "racist new With Spence-Jones no longer Now the race for the District 5 protect one's home or one's car. Rob- seat is wide open. We don't have Governor Scott needs to con- target of a boycott," he said. But she tion boycott before terms were that have already entered the it. Allowing people donated to Zimmerman's 'de-- says a boycott may become the finally reached.
Smith points race, were joined last Tuesday Malone issued a statement of to walk the streets with a con- fense. Boycotts are still effec- only means to effect change. I don't dated on how progress is being does not care, then we will have Convention and Visitors Bu- off to County Commissiorier can be.
No matter how large a minds by any means necessary' lost in tourism revenues as a "I believe Michelle is a great district in the City of Miami and 'be used to do whatever we want company is or how much mon- untilwe get a severely modified result of the boycott, the final fighter for our community and chief promoter of the welfare of them to say. It also depends on ey they make, they have to an- version of stand your ground.
Protests are swer to their shareholders. Liberty City. Elaine H. His mother was on bed provide economic opportui- i:who were convicted in of Development [BOLD]; attend-' continued from lA rest most of her pregnancy ties for District 5.
He could have been caee yteBhma rone's callto action to work place. He nesW r n u uligmitment: to our community. This was the second[ pointed Teele to the poSt of As- were picked up and taken to who would keep you laughing children, but he was their only year that members of the corn- sistant Secretar of Transpor- Guantanamo Mayor Thomas and who had a bright future natural born child.
Walker added that during life for Teele, and according b.. Teele knew how to secure Community. Miami and' was doing quite 80 people gave their lives to Executive Director of Intercity Nichols. Dance Company the first one cate the Black Box Theater in tion system. Teele's name. He also allegedly impregbers, but more have been from cases of mistaken identity: reports Florida news station tiore, prison was no deterrent nated four of the female guards, know you're fixing to go," ac- Florida.
Her cellphone number for these guys. That's because one of whom gave birth to two of cording to a report by Daytona phone number, and since July er owned a cellphone before be- was one digit removed from for years the place was run by his children. Tavon White, an inmate who Zimmermanni, who was not more intimidating calls.
Prosecu- ed by the jury's verdict in the recorded the message on his dark," Zimmermanin says. He report- doesn' t make sense I'm in a night he killed Trayvon. Ju- of Cumberland, R. Black communities across this such a hassle," he says. Since Trayvon was killed, a Fla. He has deactivated his White, prosecutors say, was nation the greater focus of their 'Zimmermann says a couple number of individuals with un- number after receiving nearly Facebook account.
Clinton is the best President Ronald Reagan had other than perhaps among sex- hope for putting the USA in that a great line that he used to de- ists, misogynists and women league. I don't know how old In fact, she's had a knack for stay looking so young," he would Clinton will look in three years, doing things that irritated me. Republicans would will be 69 in , is too old to tion, and win it.
And she should savage her on the Benghazi firun for president -- that she's win'the White House, not only asco -- you could expect to see a throwback to an era ba rely because she's a -woman, but be- ads showing the four- Ameniknown by the youngest genera- cause she's a pragmatist who ,cans killed there twinned with tion of today's voters, has more experience and politi- a scowling Clinton yelling to a Really? This message was cal savvy than any candidate ei,- congressional committee; "What thought UP by the party that ther party.
They'd question 72? The party that clings to the ing fruitlessly for evidence that her effectiveness as secretary of memory of Reagan, who wal- there is'no ceiling in this country State.
Nearly fend the most unpopular Parts Hillary Clinton addresses the 51st Delta'Sigma Theta National Convention in Washington among young voters in , two dozen countries around the of Obama's sketchy record asrent. Keith Alexander, head of suspects and the uncovering of BJi i el. The data collection of data. His proposal drew immediate Justin Amash, R-Mich. Tom Cotton. Snowden, the NSA contract Arnash, said the breadth of the The amendment, which was employee, have brought fresh opposition from political leadSupreme Court shutouts.
Wright aged adults to become more youngman that would be a focused on racism, righteousmwright miamitimesonline. And every ness, responsibility and poli- '-L t,,. Faith conferenc. Steven ening our Youth for the Future we also understand that we, cern that they have for young Caldwell of New Providence Johnson, who co-pastors - In Memory of Trayvon Mar- as Black people, also have people. The event, organized Church; Rev.
Gaston Smith Malika A. Carl Johnson of 93rd, of Friendship Ministries; Rev. Miami Central High School. Ministry marks an exciting 11 years f service y Maka A. Wright 'Berwick "Uderscore Augustin, the ;reigh ; It never gives up. E always prevails," undwecome. The events The monthly pla.
Calvary Missionary August 25 at 4p. Call Baptist CHurch will have a Agnes Episcopal p. Call meeting. Call- gto-school event on Aug. Baptist story. A story she would tell M Grace and Truth Out- Adventist Church will host a Church in Birmingham, Ala- -countless times at the church reach Ministries will host bereavement sharing group at bama, stands as a symbol to visitors from around the 2nd annual Liberty Fest on 3 p.
Call o or olyn McKinstry, has been tell- -dsyright here is where the Bunche Park will host its an- nar" Call If these roses remind us. Church, Singers, Thomas and Company, the civil rights movement. This solemn black marker "King says it like this Their deaths may teenth St.
Baptist Church on serve as a way for America to' September 15, Carolyn a troubling question: rights in the immediate year af- , "We really don't understand ter the bombing.
I mean nothing passed, and in the voting the church did nothing, the rights act passed Of course a city did nothing, there was just A section of the act was recently -Photo by M kens Do ey nothing:". Su- -Pooyiesocl nThing. Attendees word events she's attended. Patterson, be the order of the day,". Lue performed. Gregory Pope discussed lice officers, saying, "treat ev-e the hardships that Blacks have eryone with the human dignity endured over the years and also they deserve as a person.
Rev str"te Cadwe spk. I'm the natural to the supernatuity of the situation. It will Prye rqu st ak orth e dig f ioen e ional Minsrisasnon-radi- feature Prophet LutherMci tioal nd toail raica. He said regardless of your believe that God really is who filnteq bxwhhudedss. Some of the sponsors of the sttus in life, the church makes He says He is. Th adni eaatdi-o- --garden include: Home Depot, its visitors "feel at home. One man"who lives near. But Wooten says the co- of people who are dying to their "Even if I can't trace him, I'm gadn said hs field wa kile: '"' alition still needs help in their purpose and their destiny, ac- still gonna trust him because ian d lot b frihren was ed a :'.
We don't So in order to shift from the was xacly illd, he laners-Phto y CaigUptrowgardeners hope to bring events only want to deal with their natural to the supernatural, place eachuge rokeo the pot. He sic and other social events. Helping the "whole man" in- in what I don't see because he's right where the man's friend McCray says the garden has brought his son and other faro- cludes assisting with health, able to do it.
But if the FDA grants Teva Although used to prevent -At the same time, contrary repercussions of easier access CVS, for example, said the market exclusivity, which pregnancy, Plan B does, no to the view of many Plan B When it comes to the morn- to emergency contraception, pill. Often the FDA taking it, studies have shown. OneStep without restric- contr. Teva is hopeful that nausea, fatigue and cramping.
But many' questions re- younger n eeded a prescription prescription. And lar hind the counter. Amonig those products centers carry some form ofse a rces sie 'abort rt New therapy extends livesP of men with prostate cancer By Anahad O'connor like bone pain and muscle among men in the United States.
Every year, nearly 30, mei K A new radiation therapy can The drug was approved by the die from the disease, and al. In growth of prostate tumors. Most of the deaths from therapies. New Enganda3 J puren ofMei teng -f them. And keeping them off requires facilities to corcancer who were expected to cancer. And it is likely to help certainly been an unmet need pletely rethink their programs and staffing atha time when many are facing cuts in federal and live less than a year.
Those who -in treating bone metastases for' an effective treatment," Dr. Robert Dreicer, a T he new, drug contains ra increase to nearly 15 months, prostate cancer specialist and dium , which targets bone W e a niy la patients o r ugs provement," said Dr. Chris Clinic's department of solid tu- are far more massive and en- Nusip homes med rsonficto wa medication by 15 percent, but " Parker, the lead author of the mor.
Once administrators say there is no Marsden Hospital and the Insti- said Dr. Dreicer said. And keeping them Men given the drug also ex- Prostate cancer is the second makes them less toxic to bone shower cap on never a good trend in nursing home care off requires facilities to comperienced fewer adverse effects, leading cause of cancer deaths marrow, Dr. Parker said. It meant she was on a fewer drugs and more person- pletely rethink their programs tear, hating anyone and any- alized attention.
Grant, who don't need them immobile,. Looking further at patients did not receive treathas not budged, and the differ- American Medical Association. Prior to ed, a new study says. Probably not. But what sets of white women who were to eliminate major biases that ed, especially since the dataDisease- Control and Preven- we are saying is that in order matched on factors such as therapy.
The women were all in- affect analysis, wrote Jeanne base that collects records of all tion. Mandelblatt is the as- Medicare Surveillance, Epideracial disparity'ex 4ists, suggest- director of the Center for Out- lems and the state of their tu- Overall five-year survival sociate director of population miology, and End Results ing differences in screening, comes Research at the Chil- mors.
They were also compared rates were Associated Press leader when it comes to pro- omnmended amounts of except in emergencies. New Yorkers to stop smoking comes to encouraging physi- Thomas Farley said. York construction industry sharing program, ban smoking more often.
And espe- new. The Richard Anderson, the presi- He also has tried to limit the emergency use and by allowing the decades. Less than half of A.
They're part of a push to-pro- according to the Centers for 1. A continuous stairway has nities to incorporate active life expectancy has rise n at -'and. Still, only percentof the way for devices that keep rather than stairs in one area structing or heavily renovat- since he took office in Health care' costs top CFO's, worries,.
Exodus, he "This is a new season," de- gate this new terrain. FoaJu sial gay-to-straight conversion ference with the announcement To those outside of conserva- deo-Christian perspective, gay, ministry and apologized for that Exodus would exist no five religious circles, this might straight or otherwise, we're all the hurt the program inflicted.
In the ashes of the coun- seem like skin off nobody's prodigal sons and daughters. In the weeks following Cham- try's oldest and "largest "pray nose. That would be a mistake. God is calling us to And we can bet that dieinHawaii, Illinois, New Jersey ties. Ehenhack, AP based its position on an author- hard organizations such as the and Oregon.
The evangelicals and con- AlnCabr lsdEou nentoaa3-erod iaie text that has not under- Family Research Council will Forn consevativ Chrisians seroaduv Catholicsnal mos ag-erol ForcosevaiveChisiasseratveCaholcsmot g-"pray away the gay" Christian ministry, last month. But demning gays and their suprights the hardest and have rights might find it helpful, to is a tough one for those alarmed state, and the federal govern- as Chambers has demonstrated porters and sounding alarms wagered a good deal of their follow Chambers' lead.
If there's by the rapidly growing accep- ment will place same-sex mar- more than once, the Bible offers about the downfall of America. But what cess, these latest developments age that the fear-based anti- The Boy Scouts will soon ac- spected.
The accentuate a predicament that gay culture war will wreak on cept'gay kids. Two active male couples. Yes, when you put yourself in 8 and Defense of Marriage Act is generally welcomed as a tri- anti-gay "Day of Truth" in high hearted relationship with their The good news: They need conservative Christians' shoes, cases, gay marriage now goes umph for diversity, inclusion schools,. Chambers said, "We gay fellow citizens. Imagine what need to equip kids to live out Less fear. More heart.
If they exceed that day's rates, however, because tax penalty, which would leave continued from 14B of Alzheimer's, Arnold said, is rate, they must rebate consum- the new law sets minimum re- workers and their families with- a growing recognition that the Q: How would it make a dif- ers.
This summer, insurers sent quirements for insurance cover- out insurance, life can help determine how ag- disease is closely related to othference on premiums? Marco Rubio, R-Fla. Last year, rent plans. As a result, some cited the example of Gatorland, how long, heart disease. He said that leaves may be able to lay the ground- lesterol, blood pressure, obesity Officials also hope to gener-. A govern- said Sara Collins, vice president ing a way to pay for it by raising Studies consistently find that make sure that their blood yes"exchanges "for each state.
The ment report released this month, of, The Commonwealth Fund, ticket prices or laying off work- people with more education are sels are feeding enough blood to exchanges, which will be avail- based on a sample of states, "So depending on who you are, ers.
It also said average in Congress, doubt the Obama The law, also requires nsur- premiums for individuals will be aLdministration's projections. Senate speech on Thursday. Miami-Dade died July Tennessee Rep.
She great-grands, Elijah Wesley, Jr. Fraternity and served in the United 29 in Miami. The Memphis Demoand Kalijah Wesley. Viewing States Army Viewing 2 p. Service Survived by: his wife, Alice Pearl 9 p-m. Funeral Home. Gr eertl h soi Viewing 5 -7 p. Homegoing service 11 would like to extend our Domninique Dorsett; step kids, member of the state House of C om mu nt y -a. A- Entombment: Dade Memorial Park.
Service 11 a. Service 11 western Class of State Legislaa. Service 2 for Florida home in Upper see General Assembly. As the p. John A. In Memoriam first female speaker pro tempore Chuch arraingemets. Baptiste, Jr. Baptiste, Leslie L. Baptiste, and Nathan L. Service Arrangements are incomplete.
Memorialize Bethel M. Hadley Davis maker, died -. Sriebeen gone and it seems like college students. Baba Coopet ar ,at St. Johns in-the chiapel. MicelAlumni Association, Inc.
Services were held. View- Sof the i iuckon. Friday in the psheo aways tshowedtcom- "For those in political circles, at Bethel Apostolic Temple, chapel.
Kevin McNeir Other highlights will include the preSkmcneir iamiti iesonlinei ;cor sentation of the Cultural Commcr piua- mitirns Kiau esupporting-actress Oscar for her role in A The Help weeks earlier.
The Montgomery native was granto aed stretch pink limousine service, banged the state legislature gavel of f and heard a hometown marching. But after that, Spencer, 43, stopped accepting accolades. I'd be running around N accepting things, then I'd. P -' "': ; She is re-emerging iii. Customarily, sex and intimacy Ryan Coogler is based on the Miami Times writer [ is a topic not being mentioned in the true story of Oscar Grant, a gigiiinsley yahoo. She describes the book as cember 28, , sayrs her husband take advantage of the projects L.
Tinsley, dede thtthyWould ""a page "self-improvement manual has been supportive of her writing she has always dreamed about, make a concerted ffort ito avoidl join- for couples wanting to enhance their efforts, thanks to The Help. But they lovemakig and move their personal "He believes in the book and even "Octavia is all about persevertook their efforts one step forward by "relationship to another level.
HBO's The Wire , who portrays by Stringer that focuses on the ira- had committed myself to a marital My mother finds it amusing, but she her son Oscar in Fruitvale Staportance of sexual intimacy between relationship with my soul mate," she said she doesn't need it. She is over tion. It's her never-say-die atOrgasmnatic1? My cousins are titude that got her where she is nowStringer usedher knowledge gleaned of the building blocks of a meaningful my age and say they welcome the book and will continue to push her.
During these warm months, find the kids something fun to do to fill their days of leisure. Here are five super summer activities sure to be a grand slam for your family. Encourage your kids to think beyond the couch, and add a little excitement to their summer routine. Place treats on dessert plate. Place a Bomb Pop on each side of "scoreboard" as posts. Serve immediately. Melt candy coating according to package directions; Swet Scoreboard quickly spread on all sides of Bomb Pop.
Roll immediately in graham cracker crumbs, pressing to sikto Bomb Pop. Press cut side of marshmallow onto narrow end of Bomb Pop to resemble baseball bat knob. Hollow out center to ft on end of Bomb Pop. Place a dab of frosting where the strawberry begins to taper to a point, and attach sugar letter.
Set aside. Attach each grahamn cracker half with frosting for arms. Edible Basbal Bat Members returning to college: Bishop Victor T. Brad Brown, Dr. We salute readers. Many showed their Wilbert T. Carl members: Consuella Jenkins, Dr. Astrid Minister Karrie J. Reeves, publisher; thousand attending Johnson, Rev. Adams, Linda and Mack, Dr. Arthur Brookins, Minister D. Reeves, director of D. Ferguson Federal Rev. Freeman T. Adams, M. Larrie S. Adams, Larry Rev. Lovett, II and Rev. Adams, Sr.
The supported the family of Ebenezer United Adrian Thomas. Al Sharpton, Adams, Jr. Herman Dorsett, Dr. For more info. Shirley Jackson, chairperson call and ask for Wright. Last week's edition Wilson, State Representative and Miami. TCries D. The reunion greetings go out to the following Oh Trayvon, Oh Trayvon; how the heart of this world A's on the 'honor roll for the at Fordham Law, School who culminated with a trip to love birds of the week: Delane has continually cried out for You.
Lorna Lightbourn Foster book on land use called "The trip were reunion committee year's ; Donald and Juanita world has died ir You Priscilla White, Willie Addison 43 years. Tea and bag of Skittles The Her maternal grandparents Mumford, Jr. Carol and and William ';:Rithardson, Jr.
Rosebud Lightbourn- Dorothy Lightbourn. Also may I congratulate Hearty congratulations. Foster and Albert A. Miami Northwestern class president; Franklin Pinkney, health. Festival aim is to help bridge cu. Or, am I actually w itnessing Prophecy or, is it just m e? Avenge Me Mr. Eric Holder! Drums are dition of our African heritage is Delou Africa, Inc. S b c i e t to live a more healthy life. Rising, an interracial group reate and Move; and D'Kultural T!
Development Foundation. For The drum is considered to be cause it helps to preserve our the Caribbean, Africa and more information go to www Call I'm a ways wear a condom and be as flected the reality of those living 'hell and brimstone writer that educated as possible on how the with the virus.
Lee attended Edison Senior I give folks the straight up raw]. She says she's through her plays and given for money instead of marrying already written a total of 21 the diversity of her audiences : '!
Her she's on the right track. Lee found many of her cast with a few local hospitals and "I respect God's time but some I don't like His time. Stringer's first book signing at : : continued from 1c "I have tremendous respect the New Seventy-Ninth Street. Church International. Facebook and says to date it congregations," she said.
Of those viewers, the major- ples. JJ itil thought that makes her cringe happen to me,' and I was para- So there's no chance I'm go- I,. I realize I am Spencer has expanded into and Chris Evans will battle fel- probably not an action girl. The Florida- since for teachers provid- school supplies, a pair of shoes sors may not seem like much based company takes pride in ing instruction in low income and a uniform, if needed.
Chilto buy for many South Florida donating one-third of its net schools. Donations can be made businesses and nonprofits are so they can have the extra re. Andrews Ave. The drive ends with ing school supplies or money vice president for DEX Imaging business partners for its sup- a party at 10 a.
The supplies for the South Florida region, A- ply drive to benefit the Boys the council's office at W. Commercial Blvd. Imaging So- on Aug. Supplies can be into their own pockets to buy supply drives, including infor- lutions, SW 71st Terrace, dropped at the center's office supplies for their students mation on where to drop off Davie.
Roughly 88 items: Also collecting are Rick Case Davie. The group also accepts percent of Broward teachers Iberiabank: Iberiabank dealerships in Fort Lauderdale checks or gift cards to buy spend up. State Road supplies. The Florida Department of Education said statewide the number of A-rated schools dropped from 48 percent to 29 percent. Meanwhile, the number of F schools jumped from 2 to 4 percent.
By Motoko Rich floor debate last week in the dents compared with children ' House, Representative George in other countries.
On the day that President Miller of California, the main One group includes busi George W. Boehner, alead- Supporters have school districts accountable ing Republican supporter of hailed the flexibility, for rigorous standards.
Freshm en nee rem dia evaporated, systems. Domenech said David M. Steiner, the : tives on Friday passed a bill Executive director of the American deno h colo dc- courses, but dothey work?. No Democrat voted for the Washington these days. But required all schools to give "ferred from Austin Commu- The year-old special bill, called the Student Suc- well beyond the Beltway, the students annual reading : nity College to Texas State education major then took an cess Act, and the Obama debate about education has and mathematics tests in University, she put off talc- intensive remedial math pro- i administration has threat- become far more polarized third through eighth grades.
During the in the past decade. Sean "Diddy" Combs is videos, he says. Revolt, backed by Combs sey Shore and other reality rock and roll," Combs says. Our bumpy start with her own Magic Johnson.
There are oth- says he learned a lesson. The channel sometimes it's better to do er places artists will be able not going to be out there being will initially be available in one thing great. The most to get exposure, but when you flashy about it. I'm not going homes served by Comcast and powerful thing that brings us make it to Revolt you will feel to be over-promoting it. I'm Time Warner Cable, reaching together is music.
His goal with Revolt, ini- Previously aired documen- I'm just really going to be Combs refused to discuss how tially available in at least 25 taries and concerts will be building credibility; my cred- much he's investing in the million homes, is to wean the part of the mix, but the chan- SEAN "DIDDY" COMBS ibility will be my currency.
Video day, says programming chief ers, Combs says, if you want ful thing I've ever done in my footing the whole bill, but bring kids back to television" segments will blend musi- Val Boreland.
I literally almost drove there's a lot he can cover. Lee tion, which has an annual N- z operating budget of around v. And between the taking her designs years ago, Harlem Stage has upheaval in Egypt, immigratburnished its reputation by tion debates and the fallout to a new level presenting innovative artists over the killing of Trayvon like Bill T.
Now, the theater is bet- slave and rebel Francois Twenty-year old Canada na- ing that "Makandal" its Makandal to explore questive Andrea Iyamah is creating first opera commission and tions about immigration, race a buzz with her newest col- an ambitious, contemporary and liberation.
But the not just in the group faces large Harlem commuhurdles. Haiti and South Africa once of change. I started my of Andrea Iyamah allows me drea lyamah? It was conbrand at the age of I love helping when everything's moving so Street and Convent Avenue performance artist.
His work out. Along with her. While includes the play "Talk," and Iyamah also does custom items lections including swimwear Working with custom couture unforeseen. But the good thing Harlem Stage's works have he originated the title role in for the ladies' who want their since the inception of the clients is one of my favorite is, most of it has been posi- traveled before, it has never Robert Wilson and Bernice pieces extra special.
AnIyamah about'her collection some of your biggest inspira- that enhances the personality Fall collection and I'm ex-1 There are also a host of thony. Jazz, classical and been designing, and how did Elie Saab inspires me a lot. I find his attention to detail I'm very inspired bythe successful as its potential. Every piece leaves ette for A. I occupied myself with you wanting more. Like Elie, I- I try to 'throw in an edge in for more information and lem 'Stage's executive direc- Edouard Duval-Carrid, the painting and drawing until strive to be as creative as pos- each swimwear piece through updates on all her work.
Pur- tor, views "Makandal" 'as an visual designer whose politiI later fell in love with fash- sible to impress clients, cus- prints, colors or cuts. Afrca m Hart's busy schedule has him stopping from one place Beyonc6 and Jay Z made went to get some Skittles and to another, usually collecting a check in the process.
He had plans.. The club owners claim that on the on Saturday. They were among no intentions of robbing any- night that Hart was supposed to arrive, he ditched the club and ran off to party with those protesting George Zim- one's home.
Venforcement officer is taught As much as you might be annoyed by Dwyane Wade's ex-wife for going out in candid. This guy's a offingg mall ter the rush of negative publicity that came after Siohvaughn Funches went out in sleep for two days," Jay Z says.
According, to the Chicago Sun-Times, Funche5 is going to walk away a mik. If ypu just ask I'm fighting against. She says Wade had agreed to giv her a' cut of his endorsement deals, the question, ask yourself the guard and their old ideas and whichhe allegedly failed to deliver in a,:timely manne This doesn't even count the question, 'Didn't Trayvon have their stubborn ways-and all :i!
Wd ih hrdtheir ego and all thei B. Beyonce and Jay-Z with Sybrina Fulton and Reverend Al and you just hate to believe interference andobstruction of a peace officer. Yod khow, he may. After Chris' probation was revoked on July 15 following a hit-and-run case, the 'Fine China' singer seemed dangerously close to spending up to four years in prison.
Call State University meets dismissed misdemeanor charges against Chris of driving without insurance and drivOA ilaiittter E MOCA will facilitate their Chris' attorney, Mark Geragos, has filed a motion to dismiss the final 16, from p. Call' Chris, who has publicly declared Call The Party Up 'rapper, 42, was arrested near g reenville, S. DMX, whoe. Class of make a The rapperwasseen driving "erratically":Thursday nightataboutllp.
Call hewas pulled overon suspicion of driving underthe influence, according to Sgt. Beries of the South Carolina Highway Patrol's media relations department. Washington Center'and charged with driving under the influence, not having a driver's license celebrating their 40th class Mayor Carlos A. Contact Class of meets, every and not wearing a seatlbelt, Beres says.
Call classes, Mon. By Dorkys Ramos tion company when I started Hall,. Across the time landing roles in wood, it's important to grades including nine district- state, schools avoided be- the beginning of his i remember that the men Glade.
Dur- ' ter School of Boynton Beach year'where only, six schools re- schools benefitted from grade ing an interview with k' him- andus ladies, reand Joseph Littles-Nguzo Saba ceived F's, three of which were drop limit.
Some of my boys, 38 B schools and 35 C schools; huge drop from last year's statewide. Davie Elementary was one Broward Schools Superintendent County were A-rated compared ter' of fact, my first pro duc- There's enough for everybody. CO REesibacslkmthradn For the first time since at Hollywood an m g n i l mtsh ost n rd rp At o g u itit c ni continued from 4C and writing to prepare for colleast , the Broward school dle Charter school in Coral even if they would have fallen ues to be a state leader, we still 'lege-level courses.
The problem is tests to students with disabili- dent of Duval County Public ally immersed me in math year colleges, about" 20 percent continued from 4C -that no one can agree on how. I don't think that I would still of freshman students enroll in Congress has failed repeatedly Supporters have hailed the Disability advocates -includ- be in college," said Grubb, who remedial classes, according to The schools are required to over the past six years to re- flexibility.
Obama administration has is- majbr urban school systems dents. But without the account-. It works "We really believe in a collabVirtually everyone agrees ment or consequences for states and districts and cities ability measures for states and with such local nonprofits as orative effort," said Wong, "to' today that such a goal is un- schools that fail.
It also allows regarding performance," said districts, I do fear what hap- 'the YMCA, Kids in Distress, make sure these children go reachable and that No Child states to administer different Nikolai Vitti, the superinten- pens to the equity agenda. Fltoe r rose by 7, last week to a Weekly applications data Applications are a proxy for Fori da retailerns, face painters, seasonally adjusted , Employ"The back-to-school sea- But the broader trend is con- weeks of the month to pre- ers have added an average Songest sistent with an improving job pare for new models, leading , new jobs a month selling seasons, g market to temporary layoffs.
But this this year, up from an average Stdet and pere The Labor Department says year much of the industry , in South Florida retailersmaktn efosfrTwr are arming themselves with Shops. The 'center n related accessories going for and Tracy Mourning. Facebook page that he was The Foundation is involved leaving the job he has held in various philanthropic P t for back-to-school su p es for the past eight years and activities and has expanded p has accepted an offer from its reach to include affordable his friend and business col- housingdevelopment.
According to a press takes a search for a perma- ', that organization, I created a release from the Chamber, nent CEO. School supplies are more expensive 2 :. Cutmrgeovrashosupislswihissn f Maybe The findings come as back- isasrous aitisyer'0 th er'as en ac Cla, chiranoff th coun. Email: firm clynelegal. Woigu et ness and Professional Associ- ing financial issues which top-performing economic de- Serving your legal needs since Clyne, Esq.
T gtech job site Dice. It the M-1 Rail Streetcar are continuing beally good sale. The analy- some stores. Some stores may be with the same: school sup- on clothes and shoes.. It all depends grade, his list is cut in half,' five percent increase. Submittal Due Date: Wednesday, May 22, at p. Thirty-one percent dent" and 18 percent the CEOs are "seeing year as they did in Keith Costello, pres- expect the same rate "not confident.
They anticipate ident of Broward Bank of growth. Only six A whopping 73 per- bookings," he said.