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Item, on the vigil of St. Bartholomew in the i3th year of your reign, the said Sir Lewis Bagott at the desire of the said George caused the said Thomas Forster forcibly to take from your oratrix 4 oxen then at Colton, co.
Stafford, and to drive them to Marston, co. Derby, and there use the oxen in ploughs. And when Thomas Blount servant to your oratrix came to have the said oxen again, one. Yell made assault upon the said Blount. Item, etc. So, through such grievous vexations and wrongs to your said oratrix and her poor children committed by the said George Greseley and by his means, they can have no remedy by your laws, and are in danger to be utterly undone, and wrongfully put from all their lands and livings for ever.
In consideration whereof, please your highness to cause the said George Greseley, now in the city of London, to appear before the lord Thomas, legate, Archbishop of York, your Chancellor, of England and other lords of your Council, to answer to the premises.
The answer of George Gresky. A long time before the birth of the said Anthony, etc. Wherefore the said George supposes he should not be put to answer to the said bill as sons of the said Sir William Gresley considering and also that Sir John Savage was never privy to the said bill, and that there are no such Anthony Gresley, Thomas Gresley, Humfrey or Edward Gresley, by the name of Gresley in rerum natura and also that the substance of all the contents of the said bill is untrue, etc.
Further, he is not guilty of any riot, force, etc. The residue of the contents, ir they were true as they are not, they are determinable at the Common Law, to which he prays to be remitted. T to Sir Edw. Aston of Tixall. Draycot of Paynsley. Lord Audley. Love Blount, ad- ofAynhoe. As to any riot, etc. As for the entry into the Hall Closse in Ansloiv, Humphrey Boughey says it is his freehold, and he finding 12 cows, 2 heifers, a bull feeding in the same, he took and distrained them, and drove them to Whytmore in the same shire, and impounded them there, as was lawful.
Without that that the said close was put in view to the recognisances of the assize or is comprised within the same, or that John Blunt recovered the said close in assize against the said Humphrey, or that any of the said beasts were driven to any foreign shire, or sold, or that Christopher Boughey, etc. As to entry into the Lount, Hugh and Christopher Boughey say that it is and was freehold of the said Humphrey by whose command they distrained the 8 oxen that were feeding there, and drove them to Whytmore and impounded them there, as was lawful.
Of which 8 oxen, John Blunt has 2 again by a replevyn. Without that that any assault was committed to Thomas Byrt or Richard Alcock or that any of the persons named in the bill have been indicted of riot, as is alleged, or that anything in the said bill not traversed in this answer, is true. Bundle 24, No. Your orator Ralph Cruche. Whereas the church and parsonage of  Adbastoii co.
Stafford, is annexed to the Dean and Canons of Lichfield cathedral, and Dr. Denton, being Dean of the same and seised of the said parsonage, made a lease of the same parsonage to Sir Richard Strete, Archdeacon of Shrewsbury, and to your orator to hold from the Feast of the Annunciation, 14 Henry VIII, to the end of 3 year? On Easter Monday your orator came to the said church to hear evensong and to speak with the said Braddok why he took the said tithes, and Braddock perceiving your orator in the church commanded the priest not to say any evensong, upon pain of his life, and caused all parishoners being there to " avoid " forth of the church.
Wherefore your orator was compelled to depart out of the church, and the said Braddock after this, slanderously surmised throughout the country that your suppliant slew his servant, which servant is yet alive, by reason whereof Thomas Southley, who pretends to have Catalla felonum within the manor of Southley Hall? Sowdley, co. Salop where your orator dwells, by the incitation of the said Braddok seised all the goods of your orator and retained them to the great loss of your orator, till the said servant supposed to be murdered, at your suppliant's charge was brought from co.
Derby to the Manor of Southley Hall and to the church of Cheswardyne, co. Please your highness to grant your writs of subpena to be directed to the said Francis Braddok, commanding him to appear to answer to the premises. The answer of Thomas Tayllour to the bill of complaint of Ralph Cruche.
The said bill is untrue, etc. Further he says that Franceys Braddok, esquire, in the bill named, at the time of the riot supposed to be done, occupied and held all the tithe corn in Flasbroke, and all the tithe corn and hay of the lands belonging to the Manor of Adbaston, co.
Stafford, for certain years yet enduring, of the grant of the said Ralph Cruche, in the name of Dr. Denton his master, parson of Adbaston, and hired the said Thomas Tayllour to carry certain loads of the said tithe corn belonging to his said farm of Adbaston and Flasbroke, which your orator so did.
Without that that the said tithe corn appertains to the said Ralph. Bundle 31, No. Your orator was seised in right of Margaret his wife, now deceased, [ I 5 2 4J of 24 acres of arable land, six acres mead, four acres of pasture and 5 acres of wood in Penkhyll, Clayton and Schebrigge Seabridge , co. Stafford, and so seised by the space of 4 years, until the day of the Annunciation of Our Lady in the i6th year of the now Lord the King, by the procurement of Robert Mylward, certain riotous persons, that is to say Randolph Terlyke, Richard Pason, Richard Terlyke, John Standley with others, with force and arms entered and put out your orator of all the said premises, to the use of the said Randulffe and Richard Pason and their heirs, since which they wrongfully detain the same lands of your orator, he being tenant by the courtesy of England.
In consideration whereof please your grace to grant a subpena to be directed to the said Robert, etc. John the Baptist next to be. Your orator Humphrey Stanley, clerk, was and is very owner of the  manor of Aston beside Stone, co. So it is that Thomas Massy of Yerdington, co. Wherefore please your highness to award several writs of subpena to be directed to Thomas Massy, etc.
SMITH v. Stafford, yeoman, son and [heir] of William Smyth of Lappeley, deceased. The said John Burne and William Adams head men of the said jury, by labour of John Smyth the elder and his sons John Smyth and Jenkyn Smyth and by reason of a false writing there showed persuaded their fellows to give a verdict contrary to right, that is to say they gave their verdict that the said John Smyth the eldtr had more right in his tenancy, than the said John Smyth demandant, had in his demand.
Of these wrongs your orator exhibited a bill against the said John Smyth and the jurors and steward, and a commission was directed to Sir John Gifford, knight, and others to examine the said parties upon the matter in variance.
So it is that since that time, John Smyth the elder is deceased, and his son John Smyth after his death wrongfully entered into the said premises with the said Jankyn Smyth, and wrongfully keep them by maintenance of Roger Fowke, gentleman, greatly allied in that country and learned in the law, contrary to all right. Which Fowke was before this time counsel to your orator, and received gs. Your poor subject Robert Osborn of Gnowsall, co.
Howbeit Leonard Harecurt, gentleman, about 3 years last past, with force and arms riotously entered a close containing 3 acres of the aforesaid land, and destroyed the pasture thereof, and sowed and afterwards mowed the crop thereof, and never would make recom- pense therefor to your subject, or to the said Thomas his landlord.
Further the said Leonard, to impoverish your orator, his wife and three small children, without any just cause, the i6th April last past entered another close of your orator and with force took and drove away two cows there, and withholds them in hiding so that no replevy can be made for them.
The said Leonard, of his further malice of late took and set your orator in prison and in the stocks and irons of Gnowsall and there kept him two days, and after released him threatening him that he would put him in such prison as no friends should labour for him, except he would release to him his lease of the premises.
Therefore please your highness to command that the premises be examined by your council, and that thereupon they be restored to the right of your orator in the premises. The answer of Leonard Harccourt. The said bill is uncertain, etc. Julian, late wife of Rafe Wright was seised of the said lands and so seised took to husband William Garmes- ton. The said Leonard peaceably ploughed and sowed the said ground, and distrained the said two cows for damage and put them in pound.
They continued in pound three days and no replevy was sued, thereupon the said Leonard, lest the said cattle should die, put them to pasture, where he may replevy them if he will. Stafford, directed a warrant of good abeyryng "against and the Robert, whereupon. Both parties appeared, and Leonard Harecourt desired a copy of the said bill and a reasonable day to make his answer, which we granted.
The said Leonard showed us he had a lease of William Garmeston, of the house the plaintiff now dwells in. The aforesaid Garmeston utterly denied that he made a lease to the said Leonard, who said again that an award was given by Sir John Salter, that the said Leonard should have the taking and setting of the said house.
The said Leonard could show no writing, therefore, the parties appeared before us at Brude firewood , nth June next following, and the said Leonard brought his answer hereto annexed, to which answer he is not yet sworn, nor has he brought forth any record against the articles in the bill of complaint. Therefore we desired the said Leonard to let your orator have his house and to deliver his cows again, but he would not deliver them.
Wherefore we beseech your grace that this matter may be remitted to your honourable Council, that the parties may appear before them to know their end. In Witness whereof, etc. Walter Wrottysley. Bundle 30, No. Your orator, John Harcourt of Ronton, co. Stafford, esquire. Your orator complaineth to your highness in your court of Chancery, whereupon a writ of subpena was directed to the said Prior, to appear, etc.
Bundle 21, No. Richard Inkpene and Anne his wife, 1 being seised in right of Anne, of 2 parts of a pasture called Norton Hey in Norton, co. Stafford, and a smithy there, let the same to Sir William Brereton of Brereton, co. And the said Sir William, so being seised demised the same to your orator with all tools and implements in the said smithy necessary for the making of iron, from Michaelmas, 19 Henry VIII.
Michell of Crawborowe, co. Stafford, yeoman, Richard Maot of Horton, yeoman, John Maot the younger of Grotton, labourer, Thomas Watson of Grotton, yeoman, Thomas Leigh of Horton, yeoman, with force and arms entered the said smithy and took away the smith-wheels ; and after, 23rd May, in the same year, broke the wheel which your orator had newly made, and burned and wasted 2 loads of charcoal, and destroyed such tools as were then in the smithy ; and the same persons, 25th June next, broke the said wheel which your orator had repaired and cast down the " blow hearth," and most of the walls of the smithy.
Also, 4th July, the same riotous persons came to the smithy and burned and destroyed one wainload of charcoal, and destroyed the residue of such tools as are necessary for the making of iron, and 2nd August burned 2 loads of charcoal of your orator, and pulled down the residue of the walls of the said smithy, to the great loss of your orator. And albeit your orator at divers sessions of the peace held in co. Stafford, has put up divers bills concerning the said riots unto such inquests as there were empanelled to enquire for your highness ; notwithstanding, by reason of the friendship the said riotous persons have in co.
Stafford, the said bill would not be found; and the said riotous persons, to cloak their offences have falsely caused your orator and divers of his brethren to be indited.
Please your highness to grant your writs of subpetia to be directed to them to appear before you to answer to the premisses. Martin next. The said Martin came to London and showed Sir Edward Belknappe that Henry Knight had obtained a grant of the said lordship ; who hearing the premises took the indenture by him made to the said Martin, and went to the surveyors before named, sitting at Blackfriars at the audit time ; whereunto they answered that if the said Sir Edward had made any such lease, then the lease made to Henry Knight was void, and the said Martin by their order, did enter into the lordship again, and was peaceably possessed until 21 Henry VIII.
The said Henry Knight made Roger Knyght his executor, and afterwards died, after whose death the said Roger came to the said Sir John Daunce, and by a feigned surmise obtained a privy seal against the said Martin for wrongful occupying the said lordship, and the said William Rugeley hearing thereof, went to the said surveyors and showed them the lease made to the said Martin, and "quyttonsis " made by Thomas Slade your receiver, of the "incressie" of the said lands.
Notwithstanding, the said Roger, by maintenance of Sir Henry Willoughby, caused your tenants of the said lordship to put a bill of complaint to the said Sir John Daunce against the said Martin Audern surmising Sir Henry Willoughby to be steward to the said lordship, and that Martin, being bailliff thereof would not be ready to attend at such times as Sir Henry appointed, to make the panel, according to his office, to their great loss.
Your orator having the interest of Martin answered thereto, and four commissioners did examine the matter, and upon their certificate Sir John Daunce and John Hallys, one of the Barons of your Exchequer, determined that the said William Rugeley should make steward whom he would, for all things comprised in his indenture, and for all things out of his indenture 1 See chart pedigree on p.
The said Sir Edward appointed Court to be held in this lordship at a certain day, and because the said William could not be present because he had business in his office of your " Wardroppe of Bedis," he sent word to John Redhede his deputy to be ready, to make the panel.
The said Sir Edward refused to admit the said deputy, and put in Roger Knyght as bailiff, and the said William Rugeley having knowledge thereof went to Tftomas Slade your receiver, and paid him the half year's rent and took his " quyttons " thereof, notwithstanding that he had not gathered any part of the same half year's rent of the tenants of the lordship, but was suffered to gather no penny of the same, by Roger Knyght. Wherefore the said William sued a stire facias, directed to the sheriff of co.
Stafford, out of your court of Chancery, whereunto the said Roger answered that Sir Edward Belknappe did not demise the said manor to Martin, and a jury returned by the sheriff of co. Middlesex found that Sir Edward, by the said deed, demised the said manor to Martin for 21 years. C -C rt. Stafford, to the use of John Egerton and his issue male, after whose death the said manor descended to Rauffe Egerton son and heir of John, being then about the age of f years, your oratrix as natural mother of Rauffe by the assent of the said Robert and William ever since the death of her husband took the profits of the said manor until now, i 9 th September, 21 Henry VIII.
Hugh Wylloughby late of Myddelton, co. Chester, yeoman, Richard Morres of Kyngley, co. Stafford, yeoman, Robert Homersley of Bothon, co. Stafford, yeoman, William Hollyes of Moseley, labourer, Rauffe Holies of the same, labourer, William Moumford the elder, of the same, husbandman, William Moumford the younger, labourer, Rauffe Moumford of the same, labourer, John Bagnald of the same, husbandman, Hugh Bagnald of the same, labourer, Thomas Bagnald of the same, labourer, Rauffe Bentley of Bothon, labourer, Thomas Hollyes of Cunsall, co.
Stafford, labourer, John Broke of Myddylton, co. Stafford, esquire, Thomas Brough of the same, yeoman, with divers others, in riotous manner with force and arms, igth September, 21 Henry VIIL, by the procurement of Philip Dracote, esquire, entered into the chief mansion place of the said manor and in the garden of the same, and wrongfully disseised the said Robert Folleshurst and William Chetwyn, and expelled your oratrix and will not suffer her to take the issues and profits thereof.
Please your highness to grant your writs of subpena to the said Hugh Willoughbye, Philip Dracote and others abovenamed, commanding them to appear to answer to the premises. The said bill of complaint is untrue, etc. The rest of the contents of the said bill, are deter- minable at the common law, and not in this court. Bundle 14, No. The replication of Agnes Egerton. The said bill is true, etc. Hugh Willoughby, gentleman, aged 19 years, sworn 27th November, says that on the Wednesday before the feast of St.
Michael last, having only a dagger, with Robert Homersley, John Hollyns, John Bagnall entered into the capital messuage of Chedulton and left five of his servants there to keep the same. He sent to the tenant of the said messuage, without counsel of Draycote, to know whether the said tenant would be content to return to this deponent or not.
Which tenant answered that he was content, whereupon this deponent entered as is aforesaid. He lay the night before he entered the said capital messuage, at Peynesley, co. Stafford, in the house of Philip Draycott, about 4 miles from Chedulton.
Philip Draycott, esquire, aged 40 years, says that, forasmuch as his son has married the sister of Hugh Willoughby, who for default of issue should inherit the said land, therefore this deponent willed Robert Homersley, John Hollyns and other tenants in Chedulton to become tenants of Hugh Willoughby.
Forasmuch as Hugh entered into the said messuage, being but a poor farmer's house, he sent to this deponent's house, and his wife in his absence sent him beds and certain vessels, he not having any knowledge of the same.
John Holyns, aged 36 years, says that he saw the entry of Hugh into the said messuage, without harness, and weapons. Draycott was not at home at the time of the said entry, therefore was not privy to it. Ralph Heywoode, aged 30 years, says the said Hugh Willoughby on the day mentioned with four of his servants, having bows and arrows, entered the said messuage with force and strength.
Eleven persons entered with him to keep the house, and they had the weapons aforesaid and " jakkes. Robert Mountford, aged 24, says he was not there at the time of the said entry.
He was desired by Robert Amersley [Homersley] to go to helpe Willoughby to keep possession of the said house, and this deponent answered that he was very loth to go. About " Pancryche fayer " he saw in the same house, to the number of 60 persons keeping the said house having weapons.
William Serjeaunt, aged 32 years, says [as above]. John Feneawe, aged 35 years, says that being a miller dwelling near the said house, saw Willoughby and his servants, with bows and arrows and swords and bucklers enter the said house. James Owestnom, [Wolsenam] aged 30 years, says he thinks Draycote was of the said house, saw Willoughby. Also he says that, on the Saturday next after the said entry, Hugh Willoughby and 8 or 10 with him came to the church of Chedulton to evensong, having swords and bucklers, and having harness upon them.
William Cassey, aged 50 years, sworn, says as Ralph Heywoode has deposed. Edward Fenney, aged 23 years, answers as Ralph Heywoode has deposed. William Bressyngton, aged 50 years, says he was not present at the time of the said entry. One John Howlens, Willoughby's servant said to this deponent, " thou must be my master's catour or provyder for mete four or five days," which to do he utterly refused. John Taylor, aged 50 years, says [as above]. Ralph Fenton, aged 40 years, says [as above].
The replication of Agnes Egerton to the answer of Hugh Willoughby. Without that that the premises lawfully descended to the said Hugh and other coparceners by inheritance after or by the death of the said John Egerton of Wrynehill, by reason of any old entail of the premises made to the ancestors of Hugh, and that anything in the answer is material to be replied to.
Bundle 29, No. Your orator Lawrence Savage, esquire. Stafford, yeoman, with other riotous persons, 2nd August in the 2ist year of your reign, broke into the said pasture, and with force drove away 25 beasts, the price 24, of the goods and chattels of your orator, into another county, to the great loss of your orator insomuch as he can have no delivery of the said beasts to him by replevy.
In consideration, etc. Your orator Lawrence Savage, gentleman. Whereas John Egerton,  deceased, was lawfully seised of a pasture called Cheteltou Park, co. Stafford, and to farm let the same to your orator from the feast of the Annunciation, in the iQth year of your reign, for a term of 12 years, paying therefor yearly 6s. Further, the aforesaid riotous persons, 8th May last, riotously and with force entered the aforesaid pasture and took 7 other beasts of your orator, all which beasts, Henry Broke has driven into co.
Chester, and other parts unknown, so that your orator cannot have replevy made of them. Please your highness to grant writs of subpena to be directed to the said riotous persons, commanding them to appear to answer to the premises.
Whereas John Algar, clerk, Prebendary of Fetherston co. Please your highness to grant your writs of subpena to be directed to the said Thomas Leveson, etc.
The said Thomas knows no such lease made to 1 See chart pedigree on p. Nicolas Leveson of Prestwood and Willenhall, oc. Bradbury, of Lon- don. Wrottesley of Wrottesley, b.
Ann md. Lilleshull, Trentham, etc. John Leveson, Thos. Leveson, Joan, m. William Fowke of Ja Sir Thos. Gres- Kt, of Lilleshull " Brewood, d. A ham, of Tilsley, and Trentham, Ian Surrey. J a quo Frances of Lilleshull and Trentham, who md. Sir Thos. Govver, Bart. A widow in Hare- wood, co. Walter Leveson, Eliz.
John Leveson of W'hampton, merchant of the staple, Sheriff Staffs. Leveson of W'hampton, b - I Sheriff Staffs, , d. Ridley, b. Fowke Walter Grosvenc of Lit. Wyrley d. Nevett of Bushbury oc. Joyce dau. But the said James not content therewith pursued another writ of subpena for the same matter, to vex the said Thomas, without good ground. As to any riot, supposed in the bill, they are not guilty.
Whether the said Thomas cut down the gate named in the bill, or any other person by his command, and with what? Whether the said Thomas claimed any title to the pasture where the gate was, and whether he cut down the gate of malice. How many persons were with him at the cutting down of the gate, and who were they?
It was cut down with an axe brought by the said William. He supposes it was done for that heretofore James Leveson and others by his commandment had done this deponent's displeasure in cutting and breaking his hedges. He says he was not present when it was done, but he was not far off, and there were no other persons there.
Further he knows not. Your orator John Madley of Qwykhill, co. Stafford, husbandman, [l5 2 9l long before this time complained to your grace that John Fitzherbert of Norbury, co. Derby, esquire, with other persons, riotously entered upon his lands and tenements in Qwykhill and Prestwode, co. The earlier suits between these two evidently began in , see Vol.
So it is that upon St. Since, your orator has peaceably entered the said messuage, lands, etc. Stafford, to the utter loss of his inheritance, which is so impover- ished by his long pursuit before your Council for his right in the premises, unless your favour be shown to him.
Wherefore please your grace to grant your letters of privy seal to be directed to the same John Fitzherbert and Nicholas his son, and the other persons above named, to appear before you, and to forbear the suit of the assise above- rehearsed. Those persons against whom the present petition is exhibited are to be called to appear, etc.
Michael next, under a pain of , And thereupon it is enjoined on them or at least on all known by the name of Fitzherbert, to wit, John and Nicholas, that they surcease from the prosecution of the assize for the lands within specified until the lawsuit pending between them and Madeley in the Council be decided there, and this under a pain of marks, etc. By the Council. The answer of John Fitzherbert, esquire.
The said bill is insufficient, etc. Without that that Nicholas Fitzherbert sued any assise against the said John Madeley. Whereas Thomas Gyfford, esquire, is seised of Wetley moor near Cares- wall, as tenant by the courtesy of England, after the decease of Dorothy his late wife, daughter and one of the heirs of Sir John Montgomery, knight, 1 See Vol.
So it is that your beseecher in July, in the 2oth year of your reign dug certain turves in the said moor, 6 wainloads, at which time Robert Cuny [Coyney] the younger, by the procurement of Robert Cuny esquire his father, with William Shyngulhurst and Thomas Hall, riotously and with force took and retain the same turves from your suppliant, for which cause they were lawfully indicted. The said Robert the father, and Robert the son, further to molest your beseecher in the same month caused Walter Cuny, Hugh Bagnald of Weston Cuny, Robert Wodde of the same, William Shyngulherst and others to come to the said moor at night, and riotously burn and destroy all turves that your orator and the inhabitants of the said town of Careswall had pre- pared, to the number of 20 wainloads.
Further, 3rd July, in the 2ist year of your reign he caused other riotous persons to come to the said moor and burn all the turves of your suppliant and other inhabitants of the said town. Forasmuch as the said Robert the father and Robert the son are gentlemen of great lands, and have many kinsmen in the said county, so that your orator is not able to sue against them, please your grace to grant writs of subpena to be directed to them, commanding them to appear to answer to the premises.
The said bill of complaint in the most part is untrue, etc. The moor called Wetley Moor contains 1, acres, whereof acres, called Weston Moor in the south, in which the said inhabitants have wrongfully cut turves, are and have always been parcel of the Manor of Weston, of which the said Robert Cuny is and at the time of the said digging was seised. The said William Shyngylhurst and Thomas Hall as servants to the said Robert and by his command peaceably at the time of the surmised riot, carried from the said acres to the said Manor of Weston, 2 cartloads of turves dug on parcel of the same, after which time Thomas Broun procured a false bill of riot against them and caused them to be untruly indicted.
Now says as he has said in his said bill. WOOD v. To the King oitr sovereign Lord. Whereas Robert Cuny esquire is and has for a long time been lawfully seised of a moor in Weston called Weston Moor, parcel of Wetley Moor, as parcel of his Manor of Weston, containing acres or thereabouts, in which he granted to the inhabitants of the town of Weston at all times convenient to cut turves, for their reasonable fuel, as they have always used.
Stafford, by commandment of Thomas Gyfford esquire, loth July in the 2oth year of your reign with other persons riotously and with force and arms dug and cut a great quantity of turves in the same moor, and carried them away, and of their further cruel mind, the ist July and divers times in June and July in the 2ist year of your reign, they with other riotous persons cut and dug a quantity of turves, with intent only to destroy the same moor, so that your orator and other tenants of Weston should have no fuel in the said acres.
Wherefore please your highness to grant writs of subpena to be directed to the said Thomas Gyfford, etc. The place where the said turves were dug is Watley Moor, parcel of the Manor of Careswall, co. Stafford, of which the said Thomas Gyfford is lawfully seised as tenant by the courtesy of England after the decease of Dorothy his late wife, deceased, one of the daughters and heirs of Sir John Montgomery, knight, deceased.
The said bill is sufficient, etc. By their answer they have sufficiently answered every article in the surmised bill. Further they say as they in their said answer do main- tain. Bundle 28, No. Your orator Richard Starter, one of the yeoman of your crown. Stafford, and in the i2th year of your reign granted the messuage, etc. Stafford, esquire, John Kynnersley, his son, gentleman, Richard Alsop, of the same, yeoman, [John crossed through] Tyxall, of the same, yeoman, John Marten of the same, painter, Richard Clerk of the same, husbandman, Richard Barlow of the same, cook, John Wodward of Bromshelf in the said county, labourer, Thomas Wetton of the same, labourer, John Alsop of Derby, corvyser, John Hake of Loxley, labourer, and William Damport of the same, labourer, with others, with force and arms came to Cramershe and riotously entered a close and pasture, parcel of the premises, and put 60 head of cattle into the said pasture, to destroy the premises, and the same riotous persons, the 24th April then next following entered the said land, and broke down the gate and hedges of the same and put their beasts into the said lands, and then and there made assault on your orator.
Please your highness to grant writs of subpena to be directed to the said Thomas Kynnersley, etc. Martin next to be. LEGHE v. To the King and his Council. Whereas your orator was seised of a mese and 6 acres of land in Leeke, held of the Abbot and Convent of Deleencres, after the custom of the same town. Please your highness to direct four writs of subpena to the said persons, commanding them to appear before you to answer to the premises : [Endorsed.
Bundle 20, No. To the Xing our sovereign Lord. Whereas Thomas Docwra, late Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in England, was seised of the Manor of Kele and demised and to farm let the said manor to your said subject from the feast of the Annunciation ii Henry VIII , to the end of 41 years, paying therefor yearly to the Prior certain sums of money; your subject continued the possession thereof until 4th January, 21 Henry VIII.
Chester, esquire, without any just cause, riotously and with force and arms entered the said manor and took away and impounded 18 cows and 30 oxen of Thomas Cleydon, farmer of your said subject. Further the said Delves, isth February last, with others, entered the said manor and pulled down the hedges and ditches of your subject, and 8th May last sent Henry Taylor and other persons who entered the manor about 10 o'clock at night and took and drove away to your town of Dodyngton, co.
And the said Delves of his further extort, izth May last, sent Thomas Peke, Oliver Stokdale, Richard Smyth riotously and with arms into a water mill, parcel of the manor of Kele, called Kele Myll, and they entered and assaulted John Huett one of your orator's servants, and left him in jeopardy of his life. Therefore please your highness to grant your writ of subpoena to be directed to the said Henry Delves, to appear before your Council in your Star Chamber, to answer the premises.
By command of the Chancellor and other councillors of the King, 2 July. The answer of Henry Delves. The bill of complaint is untrue, etc.
As to any riot, forcible entry, and other misdemeanours surmised by the said bill, he is not guilty. John's, Clerkenwell, London, at the feasts of St. Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation by even portions, with a further clause that if the said rent were unpaid, it should be lawful for the Prior and his successors to reenter, and the same indenture should be utterly void.
Michael the Archangel then next following, for the term of certain years, by force whereof the said Henry peaceably entered the premises and was and is lawfully possessed. And forasmuch as the said 18 calves were doing damage to his grass the said 4th January the said Henry took and impounded them within the said Manor as is lawful for him to do.
Stafford, where they remained without any replevy sued by the complainant, until they were driven thence for necessity of their sustenance into a pasture in Donyngton. And after they were delivered to the said Edward Wood. As to the beating of the said John Huyt who occupied the said mill by sufferance of the said Henry Delves, about 1 2th May last, he sent the said Thomas Peke to him to demand 6s. The bill is uncertain, etc. Stafford, gentleman.
John of Jerusalem in England, was seised of the manor of Kele and to farm let the said manor to your subject for a term of 41 years, paying therefor yearly to the said Prior and his successors certain sums of money, by force whereof your orator thereof was seised from the nth year of your reign till 27 July in the 22nd year of your reign, that Thomas Peke of Kele aforesaid, yeoman, with other evil disposed persons, by command of Henry Delves of Dodington, co.
Chester, esquire, riotously assembled at Kele, and with force and arms entered the said manor and took away a cartload of hay of your orator; and the said Thomas Peke, further, i6th August in the said year, with others with him to the number of 72 persons, by commandment of the said Henry Delves, assembled at Kele, and with force and arms entered the said manor and took away a cartload of corn, of your said subject.
It may therefore please your grace to grant several writs of subpena to be directed to the said Henry Delves and Thomas Peke, commanding them to appear to answer to the premises. Martin next to come. Your subject Margaret Gerard, widow, late the wife of Pers Gerard "] esquire. Whereas she is seised of a parcel of land in Asshehy, co. Stafford, called Lordys Ley, and cut down underwood there for fuel, and sent 5 carts and one of her servants with the carriers of the same. Wherefore please your highness to grant your writs of privy seal to be directed to the said William Mitton etc.
The answer of William Madok and Hugh Chalton. William Harwell, esquire, late lord of Assheley held the said wood called Lordys Ley, and felled the " loppes " thereof and sold them, and one parcel thereof was " heired " sown with corn.
After his decease his son and heir John Harwell in like manner sold the said wood, about 8 years past without interruption. The said William Harwell and John Harwell and their ancestors have suffered the tenants of Assheley from Holyrood Day to Whitsunday, to depasture their beasts there, until of late the said Margaret Gerard riotously caused great parcels of wood to be felled and carried away, and broke the hedges of the cornfields.
John Malkyn and Henry Minshall two of the tenants of Assheley desired the said riotous persons to leave the hedges, but they refused, and riotously broke them down. Without that that they menaced or vexed them, or that they are guilty of riot, or that ihe said Margaret was ever seised of the said wood, or any of her ancestors whose heir she is were seised. Stafford, and all his predecessors, masters of the same monastery held as chief lords, the manor of Home co.
Stafford, and certain lands and tenements in Home aforesaid, and have taken the profits thereof, till now of late Ralph Wydder of Home, yeoman, Robert Hall of the same, yeoman, John Wydder of the same, yeoman, and William Wydder of the same, yeoman, 6th November last, with force and arms riotously entered a mease in Ylome belonging to your orator, as parcel of the manor aforesaid, and expelled your orator out of the same.
Please your grace to grant writs of subpena to be directed to the said Ralph Wydder, etc. Time out of mind he and all his predecessors have been seised in right of their monastery of the manors and lands specified in the said bill. And the defendants are guilty of the said riot.
Stafford, held of the Bishop of Chester as of his manor of Cank, by copy of court rolls which charges it was agreed should be paid of the first issues of the said lands, and accordingly Richard Bedulf since that time has received the issues aforesaid, and paid as much of the said costs as the same issues would extend to, howbeit a great part of the said costs remain unpaid.
So it is that William Assheby of his perverse mind intending to receive the profits of the said lands, to his own profit, and to cause the said Humphrey and Richard and his wife to pay all the residue of the said costs yet unpaid, of their own goods, and to compel the poor tenants of the said lands to pay their rents to the same 1 Wm. Benson, the sycophantic Abbot of Burton, John Salwey, idiot, P. Which if they should do so, living by their husbandry, should be to their utter undoing.
Wherefore please your lordship that Richard Bedulf may be admitted to answer for himself and the said poor tenants, and to be ordered in the premises according to right and good con- science. Your orator John Harecourt of Ronton, co. Stafford, esquire, is [I53 1 ] seised of a mill in Ronton called Ronton Mill, and your said orator and all his ancestors have ever had in the same mill, a watercourse coming from a well in Ronton aforesaid called Whitle Well, to a pole called Sydwall Pole, and from thence to Stonewall meadow and from thence to a pole called Bakehouse Pole, and from thence to a mill called Abbey Mill, and from thence to the said mill of your orator, for the continuance of the same mill; until 18 Henry VIII.
Shortly after your orator made his complaint to your highness in your court of Chancery, against the said Prior, whereupon your writ of subpena was directed to him, commanding him to appear to answer to the premises.
And the said Prior perceiving his offence, desired your beseecher to proceed no further in the said suit, promising that the said turning of the water should be shortly reformed, and brought to its old course again, which he performed accordingly. In consideration whereof [un- finished. There is a well called Whitwell evidently known from Ronton aforesaid north-west, not being within a mile and a half of the town of Ronton, which divides the gildable and franchise of Elynall, which has no continual stream, but runs by " accident " rain, the course of which well descends to the Hermitage and thence down Aschebroke by divers ditches to Black- syche, and so over a green called Heighlay Grene, and from thence to the Smalbroke, and so to a ford called Fulweyford, the which water- course and the way thereabout the said Prior and his servants repaired, not stopping the king's highway nor turning the said watercourse.
BROKE v. Your orator Henry Broke 1 , gentleman, about 2ist September, in the 23rd year of your reign, sent Thomas Pheyse, servant to your orator to Madeley, co. Stafford, for certain great causes and business, by reason whereof Thomas Pheysee being there, there came Hugh Rogers of Madeley, yeoman, and Thomas Walker of the same, husbandman, with others, and in the presence of Richard Rogers, gentleman, riotously made assault upon the said Thomas Pheysee. And Robert Destons, constable there, commanded the said Thomas to put up his weapon and he should be saved, by reason whereof he put up his sword.
There- upon the said riotous persons by means of the said Richard Rogers and Robert Destons slew the said Thomas, and immediately afterwards the said Hugh Rogers and Thomas Walker by the procurement of Richard Rogers, Robert Destons and John Snede fled into a wood adjoining, called Netherscydhaye Scothay , and kept them out of sight.
The said Robert Destons and John Snede intending to safeguard the murderers, promised your orator and his company to watch the house of Richard Rogers and elsewhere within the said town, and to 1 He had married Agnes, the widow of John Egerton of Wrinehill and Cheddleton. See chart pedigree ante, p. Whereupon your orator and his company, trusting to the said promise departed, after which time the said Robert Destons, John Snede and John Bonhed and others went to the wood and succoured the murderers, and suffered them on the morrow following, wilfully to escape, which said murderers after that by their procurement escaped out of the country to Saintwarye sanctuary and there remain.
In consideration whereof please your highness to grant writs of subftena to be directed to the said Richard Rogers, etc. The answer of Richard Rogers, The said bill is uncertain, etc.
As to the riot, etc. The said Thomas Physey, Oliver Turnwike and others made assault on Thomas Walker, the day and place in the said bill submitted, to which fray the said Richard Rogers was not present, privy or of consent. At the same fray both Thomas Pheysye and Thomas Walker were sore hurt, and the same Thomas Pheysye died shortly after.
The same Thomas Walker was never seen since that time, in the country, and whether he be dead or alive the same Richard Rogers knows not. After, the said Richard being in Madeley parish church was informed of the said misfortune, and was very sorry thereof, and departed home to his house in peaceable manner.. Being there he was informed that the said Henry Broke had assembled 40 riotous persons, who together had made their "avant" to murder the said Richard Rogers, by reason whereof the same Richard in fear of their malice went from his house through the said wood specified, to the parish church of Whitmore, there to hire his evensong on the said Holy Day, being St.
Matthew's Day. In the meantime the same Harry Broke and the other riotors came to the house of the said Richard Rogers, and because they could not find him they sought him in the said wood, and after departed.
The same Richard after evensong was done reverted home, and there remained. John Snede, aged 40, 3oth November in the 23rd year, upon interrogatories ministered to him by Henry Brooke says he was a mile distant from the place where the affray was made. On the day that Pheyse was struck he came home at 4 o'clock, about four hours after the affray was done, and came to Thomas Flynt's house where the same Pheysy lay like to die, and found Master Broke there, who said to him, being then constable, " You must go with me to help to take the persons which have slain my servant.
And they watched about the same house all night and in the morning they led him to the jail. The said Hugh Rogers nor the said Walker did not escape into the said wood after the murder, and they were not in the house after this deponent and the others came thither. He never intended, nor his fellow Destons, to his knowledge, that the said murderer should escape.
They made no search in the town, because it was said the said murderers were in the house of the said Richard Rogers. They did the best they could to have taken them. Brook was with them all the night after their coming to Richard Roger's house.
This deponent nor the others went not to the said wood, but to a meadow to seek a horse, nor did speak to nor see any of the said murderers. He did not know that the said murderers lay in a kiln hole all that night or in any other place of the town of Madeley.
He never spoke with or saw any of them after the said murder nor aided them. Robert Dystons, aged 54, says [as above], Richard Rogers, aged 58 years, examined 7th February in the 25th year, says as is expressed in his answer.
Bundle 32, No. Richard Jolye of Leke, co. Stafford, husbandman, John Wegewood of the same, husbandman, the younger, William Wegewode of the same, husbandman, Robert Bayly of Brednokholme, co. Stafford, husbandman, George Walden of Dole, co.
In consideration whereof please your highness to direct writs of subpena to the said misruled persons, com- manding them to appear to answer to the premises. Your orator William Ratclyf, esquire, deputy to Edward Earl of  Derby in the office of master forester in your forest of Maxfeld, co.
John Bullocke of Leeke, co. Stafford, husbandman, Robert Bullocke of the same, husbandman, John Burgh of the same, husband- man, Roger Fowall of the same, husbandman, with others, to the number of 10, with force and arms, 25th December last, in the 23rd year of your reign, came riotously into a chase of forest of the Abbot of Dylacrose, adjoining your forest, and there killed a stag which came out of your forest of Maxfeld, and carried it away.
Also about the feast of All Saints before the said day, they killed another stag, a hind and a hind calf at Shyreford in your said forest, and about the fourth week of Lent next following killed another hind calf at the Bow Greve Gate. Also John Wegewood the elder of Horton, co. Stafford, husbandman, etc. In consideration whereof please your highness to grant writs of subpena to be directed to the same riotous persons commanding them to appear before you to answer to the premises.
Your orator William Ratclyf, etc. John Bulloke of Leke, co. Stafford, etc. Also John Wegewode the elder of Horton, etc. Stafford, yeoman, and Richard Olcote his son. Whereas the said Richard Olcote the father was seised of one mease, one cottage and 38 acres of land in the town of Talke, co.
Stafford, held of Lord Audeley as of his manor of Audeley, and about 7 years past granted the same to his son, to have and to hold for 3 years then next ensuing, and so from the end of 3 years to the end of other 3 years, paying therefor yearly to the said Richard his father Now, 1 8th November last Philip Draykott of Draykot co.
Salop, yeoman, with William Warrham, Richard Warham, Thomas Brykkys the elder and Thomas Brykkys of Talke the younger, with others, riotously assembled at Talke, broke the premises of your orator and expelled out of the same messuage, Ellen, wife of Richard Olcote the younger and other their servants, and took them to the castle of Heyley, without cause. In consideration whereof please your highness to grant writs of sitbpena to be directed to the said William Warrham, etc.
Hillary next to be. The answer of Henry Warham and William Warham. The lands comprised in the said bill are not so many acres as is surmised. Richard Warham was seised of the said lands, etc.
Whereupon Lord Audeley directed Richard Snede, esquire, his councillor, and Philip Draycott, esquire, steward of the manor of Audeley, and his bailiffs and officers, to "avoid" the said Richard Olcote out of the premises and to see that the said Henry Warham and William Warham were admitted to their peaceable posses- sion, and that then the said Richard Olcote the elder, if his title were good, to begin his action against the now defendants.
The said now defendants by virtue of the said commandment were lawfully admitted to the possession of the said lands. The replication of Richard Olcott the father, and Richard Olcott, the son. A long time before Richard Warham had anything in the premises, John Olcott father of Richard Olcott the elder was seised of the premises which descended to him from Henry Olcot his father. After the decease of John Olcot the same premises descended to the said Richard Olcott the father, as son and heir.
After that, the said Henry Warham and Edmund Warham, and one Richard Warham, having no right to the premises, wrongfully entered the same and by unlawful means kept possession thereof from Richard Olcott the elder. The said Richard Olcott for his remedy, at a court held at Audeley, the Saturday after the feast of St.
The defendants made their defence and pleaded to an issue therein, whereupon a venire faciat was awarded by the steward of the said court to the bailiff of the said manor to return 12 of the customary tenants, to try the issue between the parties.
The jurors found the issue for the part of Richard Olcott, and judgment was given for him in the same court, and at another court held after that [he] was admitted tenant to the premises. By virtue thereof he paid his "greshome" for the same and made the said grant to Richard Olcote his son, who peaceably enjoyed the same until the defendants unlawfully expulsed him.
They say in all things as they have before said in their answer. About 7 years ago the said Richard Olcote the father wrongfully expelled him out of the said lands, and continued in possession of the same until the officers of Lord Audeley quietly put this deponent in possession of the premises.
No person came with them when they entered the premises. Divers officers of Lord Audeley were present when they entered. He only had a woodknife and a dagger by his side, and the lord's servants had such weapons as they are wont to carry. He saw no one there shoot arrows, but those within the messuage shot arrows against Lord Audeley's servants. He nor William Warham plucked no one out of the premises, but the lord's officers pulled William Olcote and Edward Olcote and another out of the said messuage.
Lord Audeley's officers carried them to the castle. The same officers broke a wall of the messuage. William Warham, aged 38 years, says [as above]. Memorandum, that whereas in the matter in variance between Olcott and Warham a commission was awarded to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, knight, and Master Snede in which commission there had been yet nothing done touching the examination thereof, Wherefore it is now ordered that the said commission be newly amended and day given to the above named commissioners unto " tres pasche '" next.
And it is further ordered that in case the said Mr. Snede does not come to the said Sir Anthony and meet with him at such time and place as shall be assigned, that it shall be lawful for Sir Anthony to proceed alone to the examination, the said commission to them both jointly granted; notwithstanding.
By decree of two of the Council of the King, the day and year above written. Theys ben the goodes of Richard Olcott whiche ben wrongfully taken and witholden from hym by Henry Warham and William Warham contrary to the decree betiven theym heretofore made in this honorable courtt as partyclerly ensuyth.
Fyrst, i o lodes of woode price i os. Item, a timber tree pric Item, a tobbe stonde price 6s. Item, 4 cheses price Item, 2 bowes price Item, 16 arrowes price Item, 2 pykforkes price Item, 2 trestylles price Item, i knyfe to hewe berke with, price Item, 4 lokkes Item, for the rent of 9 acres of londe for every acre lod.
Your subjects Harry Wereham and William Wereham. Whereas  Richard Olcote of Audeley, co. Stafford, the elder, yeoman, and Richard Olcote the younger, son of the said Richard the elder, lately exhibited a bill of riot against your orator in your Star Chamber, concerning a cottage, 38 acres of land in Talke, co. Whereupon Richard Olcote the elder had judgment to recover the premises against Harry, Edmund, and Richard Warham, etc.
And whereas Richard Olcote the elder says that he recovered the premises against your subjects by a plaint in the lord's court. Richard Snede then steward, awarded a venire facias to the bailiff of the said manor to return 24 men of the manor at another court day.
At which day before Ralph Athekyns, who took upon himself without authority to sit as steward, the bailiff returned the venire facias. The jury found for Richard Olcote whereupon your orators were avoided from their lawful possession, which they and their ancestors peaceably had for 20 years.
The plaintiffs and Richard Olcote the younger, defendant, were examined before them at Rideware Hampstall, co. Stafford, Friday in Easter Week last, concerning the title of land now in variance. The plaintiff showed them an old copy and a court roll concerning the premises and the defendant said it was only levied in mortgage, and the money offered. Both parties brought witnesses. The said Antony and Richard moved the parties to divers ends to have been had, whereunto the plaintiff was conformable but the defendant refused to stand to abide.
On the part of Henry Warrham. Richardy Cardy of Wydnsbury, aged 30 years, says that he came to the house as Lord Awdeley's bailiff to give Henry Warrham and William Warrham possession there according to the custom of the manor for a verdict was reversed by error against Richard Olcot. Welden and Mr. The popular notion, then and later, was that the repo rt came as a stunning surp ri se, that it was the s i ngle trigger of d iscussions about a possible move.
In fact, wel l before the report became public there were many who k new Colby was suffocati ng and felt the College should p ick up and leave. Johnson was one of them. He had become a "move or die" adherent wel l before the survey was even conducted, and the surveyors m ust certainly have been i nfluenced by his views.
The d irector of the study was 0. Lutes, chairman of the Department of Education at the Universi ty of Maine, who assigned much of the legwork to a young graduate student, Ermo Scott. Scott became a well-known Maine educator, eventually serving as president of the University of Maine at Farmington. Johnson read the report in silence before passing it to Marriner.
When the dean finished reading, Johnson said: "Tell Dr. Lutes to publish it just as it stands. Here is our first factual evidence which justifies our new campus. As early as he and his good friend Herbert Philbrick '97, a dean at Northwestern, had talked about moving. Philbrick was the first to approach him with the idea, 19 and four months before taking office Johnson himself privately broached the subject to his new boss.
The moment the survey report became public Johnson wrote Philbrick May 15, : "Everything seems to be set for presenting the proposal to the trustees in June to move the College to a more adequate location. It seemed Johnson not only wanted to move the College, he also knew precisely where he wanted it to go. Wyman was the perfect stalking-horse. A well-known entrepreneur, his gathering of purchase options would have raised no eyebrows. He and Harvey D. Eaton had parlayed a small, local electric power firm into what became Central Maine Power Company in Wyman put together nearly twice as much land as was eventually purchased.
They encompassed all of what was known as Mayflower Hill, and extended to Pray Field on the town side of the Messalonskee, site of the annual circuses when P. Barnum came to town. Except in the inner circle, Johnson kept his thoughts to himself. First there was the matter of getting a majority of the board to agree.
Then there was the court of public opinion. It wouldn't be easy. There was a great fondness for. Philbrick was a Waterville native; his family ran the Iron Works.
Years after the move he recalled that during a visit he and his wife were sitting on the veranda of the Waterville Country Club, and "the beauty and open space all around us led us to say in chorus 'Colby must have more room,' and with it was the resolve to help bring it about. Board chair Wadsworth later said he would have opposed Philbrick's election had he known the man was a proponent of moving the College. And even if there could be general suppo rt, there wa. Col lege had only recen tl y beaten the bu hes for l wo new buildi ngs.
Alumnae Hall, a recreation build i ng for the grow ing women's di vision, was just opened across Col lege Aven ue, and a new fieldhou e, down a steep bank near the river, was set to open in the fall. There was barely enough to fin ish the new buildi ngs. Despite his zeal for moving the Col lege, Joh nson had little enthusiasm for ra ising the money. The t rustees met on June 14, 1 , the eve of Joh nson's inauguration. Armed with the su rvey report, Joh nson presented his proposal.
At the same time, he revealed that Wyman was securing land options. They could agree only to take a pause while Wadsworth named a special committee of six, charged with mak i ng a recommendation on the central question of a move. Johnson would surely have been a third, but he was laid up and sore from an automobile accident while vacationing down east. After a long d iscussion, the two eventually convinced the others to recommend a move. Trustees received the recom mendation at a special meeting of the board i n August, and Johnson asked fo r another delay.
Two months later, on October 29, the stock market crashed, and the nation slid into the Great Depression. When the stunning news began to spread, many didn't believe it. Move the entire college? A preposterous idea. The stage was set for 1 to be a most suspenseful and chaotic year. The furor began in April when Johnson received a letter from William H. Gannett, publisher of four Maine newspapers, including the local Waterville Morning Sentinel, inviting Colby trustees to have a look at a possible new site in Augusta.
If they liked it, Gannett said, they could have it, and to sweeten the deal he'd give some relocation money as well. As a young man William Gannett bought the formula for a soft drink, similar to the popular Moxie, and claimed it could cure all sorts of troubles.
He named it Oxien, bottled it on Cony Street in Augusta, and with a team and covered wagon, visited the fall fairs, selling the stuff at a nickel a glass. He later found a Boston manufacturer who made the preparation in lozenge form, and he hired agents to sell Oxien Health Tonic Tablets through a brisk mail-order business.
In he took some of his earnings and bought two Portland newspapers. He was seventy-six when he offered the park to Colby and gave the publishing business to his son, Guy Patterson Gannett. He most likely wanted to catch a prize for his hometown, and it is also possible his proposal was invited. He recalled passing through Augusta before It is likely Larson made his suggestion to Franklin Johnson.
Still, the president was pleased by the attempt to lure Colby downriver. Gannett made his offer official on June 9, S million in moving money in three years. The publisher hinted he would help with the matching money as well. It was a magnificent gesture, and one that could not be taken lightly. They calJed it " Johnson's folly.
Libby ' General Herbert M. Lord '84, director of the U. Bureau of the Budget, was general chairman. Sickness is the only excuse a ny citizen of Waterville should have not to attend.
There's no place for slackers or whiners i n this situation. The Hon. Marden presided: " If it is the sentiment of this gathering that by moving to Augusta they can transpose the willows, recreate Memorial Hall, recreate the new and old North and South buildings, replace the athletic field with its invisible monuments of bitter but friendly battles, then we will step aside because we respect the will of the majority," Marden said.
Harold Dubord '03 made the longest speech by far. He said people already knew his sentimental reasons for keeping Colby, but he wanted to give some practical ones. He described the negative economic impact of Colby leaving town. He said it was "nonsense" to think Johnson had made up his mind that the College should move to Augusta. Moreover, the eloquent speech teacher said, his presence on the stage was ample evidence Johnson had not "muzzled" the faculty to keep them from speaking out in favor of a Waterville site.
Last to speak was Professor Julian "Judy" Taylor who stunned the audience by offering the College his own landholdings in Waterville's south end, a gravel pit adjacent to the cemetery.
He said he was willing to buy abutting land known locally as Poulin's Point owned by Dr. James Poulin Sr.
His father, Daniel, was one ofWaterville's earliest white settlers. He had been at Colby si nce Colby was Colby. Known affectionately as the "Old Roman," he was convi nced the College would remain in Waterv ille, and even consul ted a lawyer who confi rmed his hu nch that a move to Augusta wou Jd entail a great deal more than t rucking an entire college sixteen miles downriver. The state had granted a charter to Colby in Watervi l le, not Augu ta. The Taylor property of about three hundred acres became k nown as the Ken nebec - Messalonskee site.
A third local place was also soon considered: the Mountain Farm site, on the highland north of the c i ty toward Fairfield. Wyman had the options for Mayflower H ill i n his pocket. Local forces lobbied the t rustees hard. Lewis 03 , chamber president, manager of the local Sentinel, '. A newsman of the old school, he ran the paper like a czar, m aking it a prime and powerful source of local news and opinion. Local activists k new it was well to have Lewis on their side i n any fight.
Lewis wrote a well-read column under the pseudonym Ima Wanderer and he used his space to cajole in the cause of keeping Colby. His publisher, the Gannetts, had owned the Sentinel since , and Lewis's defiant stand against the offer in Augusta must have made Guy P. The Great Depression was underway. Many families had barely enough to live, never mind help buy land for a college. Every day there was news of a bank closing.
In Waterville, even as the Sentinel touted the fundraising effort for Colby it was giving free space to anyone with any kind of a job to offer. The College had become used to hard times. He recalled a student losing his job in the library for returning to college with a Chevrolet. If he could afford a car, he didn't need work. Fill out and mail to F. Drummond, Waterville Savings Bank. The next morni ng's headline in the Sentinel read:. Johnson's local stock began to rise.
The Sentinel waxed both poetic and p rophetic: " I n the new Colby that is to be, we believe that Waterville is to have i ts full share in making for a better and fi ner i nstitut ion which will be an honor to the State of Maine and take its place among the outstanding institutions of h igher learning in the country.
The deadline was April 12, , when the trustees would meet for a fi n al decision. Ima Wanderer begged for the last pennies "to save the city its greatest i ndustry" and suggested the city print the n ames of donors "on parchment and hang them i n City H all so those who come after will k now who of the Waterville citizens were loyal to the c i ty in its time of peril and thus do them honor. Committee members made additional gifts out of their own pockets.
By prearranged signal, the Central Fire Station siren began to wail and two groups-Drews Band and the Waterville Military Band-stepped out to march down Main Street, with horn-tooting cars behind them. The bands stopped in front of the bank to serenade the committee and then proceeded to Castonguay Square at City Hall.
In the general hullabaloo, no one thought to tell the firefighters in the south end Water Street station what was going on. Matters were soon cleared up, and the firefighters joined the celebration. He had gone from goat to hero in ten months' time.
The next day trustees agreed on the Mayflower Hill site. A week later, in a grand ceremony at the Opera House, Mayor Dubord presented Wadsworth with the deed to the new campus. He collected his penny on the platform from a man who wanted him to win: Franklin Johnson.
Standing in the field below where the chapel would go, the group gaped at the vast expanse: acres and acres to far horizons, a striking contrast to the cramped and dingy place by the river.
The fields were crisscrossed with half-fallen fences that had divided farms; here and there could be seen the ubiquitous ledge, soon to confound the construction. Growing along the edges of the woods were expanses of trailing arbutus, the fragrant flower tha t gave the place its name.
The newly acquired property consisted of about six hundred acres, less than half the amount for which Wyman had taken options. Frank Johnson led the Augu t a sem bly a it pa ed under a crude ridgepole archway hastily const ru cted over the na rrow, un paved road at the foot of the hill. Ebullient as always, Johnson pointed to invisible buildi ngs and roadways. Many in the crowd were ex pected to help com plete the dream, and while Joh nson's enthusiasm was contagious, the devastation of Black Tuesday still rang in their ears.
I n February 1 , t rustees comm issioned architect Larson and h ired the New York firm of Hegeman - Harris as general contractor. Best k nown for his work at Dartmouth, Larson had worked on more than two dozen campuses. First, there was the matter of finding money to build a nything at all. Judy Taylor spoke. He had retired in the spring after a n American. Smith had a long Colby pedigree. He stuttered a lot when he talked about Colby. The Taylor debacle was only the first of a series of setbacks that were enough to make the fainthearted believe in jinxes.
Years later, Colby's top fundraiser, Ed Turner, wrote a short essay on the travails of the College's move to a better neighborhood. He called it "The Perils of Pauline," a name taken from the silent film episodic serial, the most enduring scene of which, ironically, was of Pauline tied to the railroad tracks and borne down upon by a train. Still, Johnson was indefatigable.
Johnson convinced his friend and trustee Henry Hilton to help in Washington. Hilton had left the board at Dartmouth to join Colby's. A man once turned down a plea to give and told Johnson he had no interest in Colby. Among the closed banks was the Peoples-Ticonic Bank of Waterville, which shut down permanently, taking with it some fifty thousand dollars of the College's money. Years later, most of the funds were returned.
His editorial raging against "the outmoded Republican No-Deal. The local Sentinel and the Portland Press Herald called for gagging the upstart editor. Professors Galen Eustis and Curtis Morrow called for his "suppression or expulsion. The full price of building a campus was not borne by construction costs alone.
As annual budgets were pared to the bone to find building money, faculty members worked for sacrificial salaries. Old campus b uildings were barely maintained, and students living there could only i magine what their successors might enjoy. Graduates of those years would say that their education was not only adequate, but also remarkable. In t wo of the twelve U. Abbott Smith '26 was the second.
The Herculean effort to turn the old pastureland into a College wore on, but not until was there solid evidence that there was going to be any building at all. Ground was broken for the chapel in August, and Joe Smith arranged a perfect photo opportunity. Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in the spring of Meanwhile, alumnae struggled to raise money for their own union, as yet unnamed.
Work on that facility began a year later. Roberts accepted: "The salary is more than the college can pay but I am confident that you will earn it. Most everyone called her "Miss Runnals. She knew almost every student under her care it was said she could recite the full names of every woman in the commencement line without looking at the list and was an unrelenting advocate for her "girls" in a world firmly centered on the men. Still, she pressed for the women at her weekly conferences with "Rob" Roberts and "brought up things just a little bit at a time, until I had sort of crept up on him.
More than twice the amount wa needed. As early as 1 Johnson fixed on Merton Mi ller '90, who had made a fortune in the gold mines of the Philippines. At Johnson's urging in 1 he agreed to do even more and do it sooner. In 1 the foundation was poured. At fi rst M iller paid the construction bill as they came i n , but in he began to wor ry about a possible Japanese war occupation of the island and asked Johnson to slow construction.
A year later, when the Japanese took the islands, M iller's m i nes were flooded. After the islands were recapt u red, the mi nes were pumped out, and M iller resu med sending checks. I t was focused o n finding funds for the men's dorm itories. Averill had begun his career as a physician i n Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Poor healt h forced him to leave medicine; and he and his wife, Mabel, moved to Waterville, where he became general manager of the Keyes Fibre Company in Fairfield, the molded pulp fi rm fo unded in by her father, Martin Keyes.
Mabel died in , and i n Averill married Frances Moser of Bangor. He sol d his Keyes interests in The fortune that had been served u p on paper plates was invested i n real estate and oil wells in California. He was, by far, the richest man in town. He was also the most generous. Five years after his plagued U.
His generosity was felt in town as well. He spared the College further awkwardness over abandoning the old campus the same year the new Alumnae Building was opened when he put up most of the money to buy it from the College and give it to the local Boys Club he helped to found.
The great World War was a dreary time for colleges everywhere. Johnson was out of town in when war was declared. It was one of his finest Colby moments: Now, if ever, the nation has need of trained minds. Then, when the nation does call you into its armed services, you will indeed be ready.
There must be no jitteriness, no confusion, no futile bull sessions about what we shall do next, when the obvious next is tomorrow's lessons. Not with fear, not with uncertainty, certainly not with indifference, we shall meet whatever call our nation makes upon us. Before we are Dekes or Zetes or members of any other fraternity, before we are Protestants or Catholics or Jews, even before we are Colby men, we are Americans, and as Americans we shall not fail.
The effort to keep men from impuJsive flight was mostly in vain. Still there was n o way to predict the likelihood of bei ng called, and campuses swarmed with m ilitary recruiters. In the fall of enrollment stood at men and women. By September 1 , the nu mber of men had plum meted by a third.
Within a year the total enrollment dropped to Each group would receive four months of classroom instruction and a final month of flight training prior to reporting to the Army Air Force Pre- Flight School.
I t was, in fact, a mess. Colby simply turned its facilities over to the Army. Enl istees were not truly students. The A rmy selected them, and many were not qualified for college work. Treasurer Arthur Seepe kept separate books to protect College money. Marriner was charged to make it all work. He gave it a good fight even while continuing as dean, but his hands were usually t ied in Army red tape. Most got called to service before they were fi nished.
Many became foot soldiers. I n June, a year before the German surrender, the last man i n u niform left the p rogram. There was no money to build and no construction materials or laborers a nyway.
When the Navy offered to lease the entire campus and turn it into a thousand-bed hospital, treasurer Galen Eustis and buildings and grounds superintendent Francis Armstrong were tempted. Eustis presented the proposal at the April meeting of the board.
He said the deal involved "all presen t buildings plus completion and construction of others according to our plans. A secon d cooperative defense program was underway before the war. Over the next three years George Gerry, the local operator, trained ten Navy lieutenants who were sent on to Pensacola, Florida, as flight instructors. From May until the end of the war all local civilian traffic was diverted to Pittsfield. In return for use of the airstrip, the federal government paved the airport road and runways.
Over the next two years the College abandoned vacations and recesses and added a twelve-week summer term carrying a full semester of credit. A new cadre of freshmen arrived three times a year, and there were thrPe commencements.
Volunteer faculty taught summer courses with no extra compensation in the first year and a small stipend in the swnmer of , after which the program was abandoned. As trustees continued to search for ways to boost the sagging enrollment, in , Dr. Hill '10 convinced them to begin a school of nursing, a five-year program requiring two-and-a-half years of undergraduate study, two years of clinical study in the field, and a final year back at Colby.
An adjunct to the school was a course in medical technology. Both programs were discontinued in These were dark times in more ways than one. The academic year was the darkest. By the biological clocks of students, eight o'clock classes seemed to begin at six. The airport had been in operation since when a prime source of business was the shipment of films for Haines Theater. Two future presidents, Richard Nixon in and Jimmy Carter ten years later, dropped by on their campaign journeys to the White House.
Anne Lawrence Bondy '46, later a trustee, remembered the worry abou t loved ones overseas and having to wai t as long trains lumbered over the crossing at CoUege Aven ue, lugging war supplies south and prisoners of wa r to con tainment camps in the north Maine woods. Cou rse o fferi ngs were slim in both the classrooms and d i ning rooms, where "meat extender" was used generously. Bondy claimed steak was on the menu only once-when the cattle barn bu rned a t nearby Moun t Merici Convent.
J ean Whiston '47 said war students k new neither campus very well. Some classes were held i n the new women's u n ion. The women's dorms were ready first. Mary Low and Louise Coburn dormitories were rushed to readiness, and in the fal l of women were shoehorned in, three in rooms meant for t wo and t wo in places made fo r one. Johnson joined his successor, J.
Seelye Bixler, at the ceremonies. The choice of names had been easy. The Coburns were lumber barons from Skowhegan. Both her grandfather and her uncle, a Maine governor, had served on the College board. Sixty-three gave their lives. By the veteran population dropped to twenty-three. With little money for construction, local crews had used the war period to begin fashioning the landscape. Larson's solution for the impossible ledge was to leave it alone.
Terraces in front of the library were the most striking. Only a fraction of the money was in hand. The apartments were both a blight and a blessing.
Many graduate and professional schools accepted returning veterans even though they had not received their undergraduate degrees. Nearly a half-century later Colby offered its diploma to Colby veterans who had gone on to earn higher degrees.
The event was complete with caps and gowns, Latin charges, and proud families, including many grandchildren. Colby names became part of the Navy during the war. In October a U. Bixler's wife, Mary, cracked the champagne bottle on the bow at its christening. The first men's housing, East and West Quads, opened in , seven years after construction began. Johnson, who had never gotten to officiate at the dedication of a new building, spoke to a commencement weekend a udience that year.
I would be able to give the college more if I hadn't made some imprudent ones too. The fires raged for a week. The football game was canceled, and weekend entertainment was trimmed to a simple, drab dance. During interm ission a double quartet of men in bowties sang barbershop harmony. The Colby Eight, formed around an old, loosely tuned baby grand on the second floor of the new Roberts Union, was an instant success. The library was the tallest b u ilding i n the state feet , and although there was no law to require it, two dozen blue neon lights were installed at the top of the tower to warn night-flying aircraft.
The "Blue Light" soon created intriguing lore of its own. The library's most u nusual tradition, born of necessity and continued for simple convenience, was its assembly of non. Spaces planned for other uses became shared faculty and administrative offices. The English department carved offices among the carrels of the stacks; two lecture rooms were separated by a supply and m imeographing room.
Still it was not enough, and faculty members found themselves teaching i n unlikely p laces, from the tower of the chapel to the basement of Roberts Union. Of all the odd tenants, the most i ncongruous was the College Spa, a snac k The two were managers of the downtown Templeton Hotel and Restaurant. The Spa eventually moved out in , but the practice of mingling offices in the stacks and reading rooms of the library continued.
In the Averills came to the rescue again. Lorimer Chapel, the first new campus building begun nine years before, opened in That same year the Bixlers moved into the new President's House, having spent the previous year in a second-floor apartment in Roberts Union. Four years later the College added proceeds from the sale of the old President's House on College Avenue and work on the new house continued.
Over the garage is a cupola, called "Howard Johnsonesque" by the students, soon to be surmounted by a weathervane in wrought iron bearing a musical staff with the notes of the opening theme of Dr. Ermanno Comparetti's Mayflower Hill Concerto. This is the gift of Mr. Before the house could be built it was necessary to move a wood-framed farmhouse, originally the home of Josiah Morrell, from the adjacent property. A wa r-surplu ai rplane hangar was sLiced in two and it pieces placed side-by-side to create a di rt - fl oor fieldhouse.
The buiJding's brick fron t gave t h e h i n t of t h e Georgian theme a n d enclosed t h e entrance and staff o ffices. Wadsworth was a bookkeeper and partner in a Livermore Falls firm that manufactured oilcloth table coveri ngs in the days when they were used for more than pic nics.
A politician and respected Republican state senator, he chaired the powerful appropriations and financial affairs com m ittee an d the committee on insane hospitals and introduced the legislation creating the first state constabulary state police out of general concern about speeders on the expanding Maine highways. H is leadership in building the fieldhouse on the old campus made h i m the logical choice for the naming of the new one.
Seavems 'oi. The Alumnus magazine called it "the first athletic field of the Atomic Age" and, in perfect celebration, Colby beat Bowdoin, 14 I t was the second Colby field named for Seaverns. A decade later Seaverns served as a trustee leader of the Maine M illion Campaign. His own gifts included the central lounge for the new Roberts Union now the Colby Seaverns Bookstore , and i n 1 he served as chairman of the College's fi rst-ever annual alumni fund.
Crafts Field for baseball and softball, given i n memory of Oliver Crafts by his parents, was dedicated i n , as were tennis courts, b u ilt near Mayflower H ill Drive in memory of Walter Wales, killed in the i nvasion of Sicily.
Neither Crafts nor Wales had gone to Colby. As the i95os dawned there were fourteen buildings on the new campus. The move was without precedent. Yet there was still much to do. With every new penny being devoted to construction, there was a growing self-consciousness about what had not been achieved.
The early buildings included a small pumping station at the foot of the Hill, an unanticipated structure required when it was discovered that the campus was too high to be gravity fed by the Kennebec Water District.
A pump was needed to supply a large storage tank above Beefsteak Grove. Wake Forest had relocated, but a single benefactor paid the cost. Many came from families 11e ting iri the suburbs, buying stoves, refrigerators, washing machines, a nd other prizes of the war-boosted technology. Television, sti:l black-and-white and "snowy," began to shape their lives in ways they did not understand. Most of the boys were hot on the trail of making money, and most of the girls were hot on the trails of the boys who wanted to make it.
If they were "silent" it was only because there wasn't much to make noise about. Many of them would later say that fate had given them the best of times for growing up. It had been running up and down the H i l l for eight years. By the fall of i the College would be fi rmly ensconced on the H ill, 1 and the bus would be retired.
In the meantime, there was still circling to do. In the fall of , some three hundred freshmen arrived a week early for orientation, and the Blue Beetle resu med its daily route. It was always jammed beyond its listed capacity, but nobody counted, least of all Rowena Nugent, a t i ny woman who concentrated m ightily on her drivin g.
She needed to. The last class on the old campus was a biology lab, held in Coburn Hall on the morning of May 22, Besides the perennial fall buzz about the new freshmen, there were many things to catch up on. The newspapers had begun carrying a new comic strip, Peanuts, and the Diners' Club was issuing intriguing new plastic things called credit cards. On the global front the talk was mostly about communism. Students had barely left for the summer when North Korean troops charged south into the Republic of Korea.
Seoul fell quickly and the communist threat suddenly seemed very real, as ever-larger headlines warned of another war. She had challenged the bully from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy, with her "declaration of conscience" speech. Earlier, in a talk containing phrases flatly stolen from the champion anticommunist, Richard Nixon, McCarthy claimed to hold the names of Communists working in the State Department.
The Age of Suspicion was full-blown; fingers were pointed and accusations made; jobs and reputations were lost. Truman said privately that "the son of a bitch ought to be impeached," but McCarthy met little resistance until Smith took him on. In a speech written by hand at her Skowhegan home, she said it was "high time that we remembered 2.
One of the hay-makers was lecture series sponsor Gabrielson, then chairman of the Republican National Committee. THE S. The Blue Beet le must al o have echoed with chatter about sports. I t stopped at the only set of t raffic lights in town, where College Avenue ended, at the top of a bustling, t wo-way Main Street.
Across the intersection sat the classic post office and on the right loomed the venerable Elmwood Hotel, exactly one hundred years old. The building had but a few not-so-good years left. Its front yard was already relinquished to an Esso Servicenter. Across the street the fire station blasted a curfew every night at n ine, to test the horn and get the kids off the streets.
Post O ffice Square was the center of town; and Watervill e , popuJation. As the bus passed through the square, students could look downtown and see the marquee of the Haines Theatre where Bob Hope and Luc ille Ball were starring in Fancy Pants. Waterville had eleven hotels and thirty-eight eating places, ranging from competing hot-dog stands on Front Street Jimmy Datsis ran one; Ricky Thomas, the other to the upscale Jefferson Hotel on College Aven ue, where Ma Shiro presided.
Joe and Kay Peters carried the tab for anybody short of cash. Of the many watering holes, a student favorite was O n ie Noel's place on Silver 3. Street: a bar to the right with well-scratched booths and tables around a dimly lit room. Alice and Rollie Violette gave light to conversations and served "Dimie" beers.
Onie's became Alice's Cafe in although students kept calling it Onie's. Here and elsewhere the checking of the legal drinking age was spotty. A smattering of veterans improved the general plausibility of any student being of age, and helpful local cops tipped off bar owners when the liquor inspector was in town.
At the top of Main Street, next door to the Waterville Savings Bank with its iron sidewalk chiming clock, was tiny hour Parks Diner, a true railroad car that boasted of its air conditioning.
Morgan-Thomas Business College was on the street too. Its name was changed that year to Thomas Junior College. Although local neighborhoods were separated in ethnic ways, Main Street was a melting pot. Enrico Conte ran a soda shop and sold frosted mugs of root beer for a quarter. Leo Diambri had a lunch counter with "ultra spaghetti. Saul Mandell had another. Evariste LaVerdiere's drugstore would soon become a chain.
George Sterns's department store boasted the city's first store elevator and an X-ray machine for measuring feet for shoes. His burly form could be seen from the sidewalk, pulling taffy from hooks hung over large copper kettles. On the corner by Temple Street, above Bob Dexter's Drug Store and next door to a Chinese restaurant, Al Corey, fresh from the army, ran a tiny music studio, selling reeds and strings and giving lessons.
Corey befriended a thousand college students, and campus groups vied for bookings of his "Big Band" orchestra. At the foot of Main Street was Levine's, "the store for men and boys. For certain, i t housed two o f the College's most enthusiastic sports fans. The founder's sons, Ludy '21 and Pacy '27, captured and devoured generations of Colby people who came to talk and never left empty-handed.
Nephew Howard Miller '41 helped manage the store and did his best to keep his uncles in check. Muskie, the law partner of James Glover, was pre ident of the local Lions' Club. Don MacNeil's Breakfast Club was on weekdays at 9. Inner Sanctum, Monday nights. Brown had enlisted. I n addition to Keyes, the area had four other paper-related mills, eighteen textile and apparel plants, twenty-five food-processing places some seasonal , and eight shoe and leather firms.
An experiment with a rotary traffic circle at the south end of the street was causing a stir; worse, there was talk of the need to make some of the downtown streets one-way. Three local hospitals-Thayer, Sisters, and Waterville Osteopathic-having brought new citizens i nto the world in and treated 35 cases of whooping cough and of measles , were bursting at the seams. Growth was also putting pressure on the local airport, recently named for Robert Lafleur '44, a Waterville youngster from The Plains and a football star at both Waterville H igh and Colby, killed in while on a flying mission over Germany.
That summer the city added. Muskie had already been elected to the Maine House of Representatives but was defeated in his attempt to be mayor of Waterville. Russell Squire, owner of a popular Main Street clothing store, beat him. Muskie wouldn't lose another political campaign until twenty years later when he stood as the Democratic candidate for vice president of the United States. The fieldhouse was renovated, but the building had a short life.
Clouds of dust rising from the dirt floor around the court dimmed the already weak lighting, and the glass roof leaked like a sieve. All summer the drive had been closed. Cars were rerouted so the Waterville Sewerage District, established in July, could lay lines ahead of the new paving. The vista from the bridge was of old farmland bristling with construction. The new campus had become a magnet for new development west of the stream. There were already a dozen houses between the stream and the campus, and work was beginning on a dozen more.
As Mayor Dubord had predicted, the College 5. He was hooted down in both cities. His vision never got off the ground. There were also a dozen Protestant churches in town, and a small Jewish synagogue. In thirty-eight years of coaching at Waterville H igh his basketball and football teams won a combined five state titles. Near the top of Mayflower Hill,. He was eighty years old, eight years ret ired from the Colby presidency. The land between their home and the Col lege was stilJ old past ure, and trees had not yet overtaken the view of the campus from thei r living room.
Joh nson waved to the students when the bus passed on the way to Runnals Union where chattering students changed places with those headed back down the Hill. He liked l iving near his campus where he could watch new buildi ngs goi ng up, walk among them, and supervise the landscaping. By 1 he was k nown as the "Man of Mayflower H ill. He died in i Ten years later, on Commencement weekend, a tablet honoring his memory was unveiled i n Lorimer Chapel.
Neil Leonard '21 spoke at t h e ceremony: " i n o u r time, while t i m id souls crept into nameless graves, a rash soul, Franklin Winslow Johnson, appeared, and by forgetting himself, rushed into immortality. Ask anyone who ever met Seelye Bixler to tell about him and the first thing they will likely say is that he remembered their name. He not only remembered almost everybody he ever met, he went to great lengths to get acquainted with more.
Crouching over the line as the ball was about to be snapped, he heard a familiar voice speak his name. Startled, he looked up into the face of Dr. Bixler: twinkling eyes; outsized, almost comic ears and nose; and a broad grin. The president had quietly slipped into the game, delighted by h is own mischief. Stories abound of meetings with Bixler, who sometimes called himself "prexy," although hardly anyone else did. Meeting "Dr.
His personal warmth surprised people who k new only of his great i ntellect. Albert Schweitzer, the great theologian, musician, and medical missionary, was his friend. Martin Luther King Jr. His grandfather was Julius Hawley Seelye, a towering president of Amherst. After graduating from Amherst in , he taught at a missionary college in I ndia, returning to study at the Union Seminary.
Boston attorney Neil Leonard '21, who became chairman of the board in and served through Bixler's term, was put in charge of the search. Some wondered why Bixler even wanted the job. He might easily have gone to a place where the physical plant and the academic program were already in place.
The men were quickly in their shirtsleeves, each with a stein of beer: After about three hours of talk-and I don't know how many steins-we decided to adjourn. As we put on our coats Neil made a classic remark. I do hope we haven't made a mistake. I telephoned Neil, and the die was cast. Many of my friends were surprised-some more surprised than pleased. Colby seemed a gamble, which like the jewel box in The Merchant of Venice might summon the one who chose it to give and hazard all he had.
But the more I became acquainted with Colby people the more clear it was that the decision was in line with some of my most deeply felt convictions. THE i95os. In he was al o att racted by Colby's physical prom ise. The impre sion Mayflower H i ll makes on me is that of a ho pitable ho t with a cordial welcome. It was convict ion and sense of purpose that made him take the job, and a dozen year later the same two things kept him when Amherst fli rted with him to be it president.
Even so, members of the board were mindful of the condition of Gardner Colby's gift requiring that the p resident and a majority of the board be Baptists. B ixler was a Congregational ist, and set to be the fi rst president out of line. Trustees gingerly asked him i f he might be w illing to convert, to which he bluntly replied: " It would be u nfortunate to change one's religious affiliation for the sake of becoming a college p resi dent.
Frank Johnson arranged for Bixler to be their keynote speaker. Bixler talked about his friend Schweitzer, and noted Schweitzer's life was "lived against a background indistinguishable from the Unitarian. Using h umor as a tool, he p ut listeners i n to h is pocket, and then carried them toward the more erudite things.
Typically gracious, Bixler wrote to thank him and ended by saying: "You may have missed my point. Bixler's humor had a strong bent toward the pun rivaled only by the elegantly mustached latter-day registrar, George Coleman, who could break up any meeting to a chorus of groans. The story went around that someone once asked the philosopher president if he thought life was worth living.
Johnson came with the Great Depression; Bixler came in , in the midst of war. But like Johnson, Bixler was well suited to his time and place. His task, as he and others agreed, was to 1ead the completion of the new campus and build an academic reputation to ma ch.
To help enhance Colby's standing, his wife, Mary, was a full partner, especi l. She was a gifted violist, and a driving force in the formation of the Colby Community Symphony Orchestra, in which the Bixlers were faithful participants. Johnson had no choice, and paid a price. Many students of his era said they didn't know him. He never got comfortable "traveling with the begging bowl. Bixler, who held his sense of humor despite failing health, told the Cotters he was being haunted by two recurring nightmares.
In the. Each year the Bixlers made certain every senior was invited to the President's House for an evening of dining, lively conversation and, of course, music. I n the second, he dreamed he was being asked to go on a fundraising trip for Colby. While his era wa marked by the continued development of the physical plant, he would mo t e pec ially be remembered for his strengthen ing of the faculty and curricul um.
He could make a good case for more bricks, but the case fo r the liberal arts was his mantra. Its ze t for the life of free inquiry is not hampered by custom, convention, or prej udice.
The liberally educated mind is inventive and experi mental. It meets unexpected challenges q uickly and is not afraid to blaze new trails when faci ng new problems. This was the theme upon which he was ready to fight i n word and deed, and we became better scholars and better teachers, better h u man beings because he encouraged us to inquire. On the staff were at least a few seasoned i n the art of asking. Lightner stayed on as goodwill ambassador, president's assistant, and fundraiser until Working to help B ixler warm the circuits with alumni was G.
Until there had been a dual alumni organization. By he, like Lightner, was an assistant to the p resident. Two other supporters appeared on the administrative scene in and each in his own way kept fences mended, both on and off the Hill. Ellsworth "Bill" Millett '25 was already well known when he replaced Goddard as alumni secretary. A stellar undergraduate athlete, he returned to the old campus in after two years of teaching and coaching at Waterville High. Like Bixler, he knew everybody's name, and he too was a humanist and as much beloved as any figure of his time.
His work with alumni began on the campus where he was a specialist in rescuing undergraduates. Colby" and it stuck. In the newly acquired alumni house was named in his honor. Libby as editor of the A lumnus and Joseph Coburn Smith as chief of public relations. A tireless and loyal advocate for Colby, he developed strong ties to the regional media representatives and took the quality of the magazine to new heights. Thorough and precise, he was as demanding of others as he was of himself.
An inveterate saver, more than anyone Dyer preserved what could be moved from the old campus. He plagued higher-ups to find money to rescue artifacts, and he pestered librarians to organize the "Colbiana" collection. His loyalty led him to serve well as an assistant and confidant to three presidents. Bixler's aversion to money extended to the balancing of the College budget. For that, he had A. Galen Eustis '23, a giant in the task of keeping the College afloat in the precarious years when academic support competed fiercely with the need to buy more bricks, and when capturing every new class of freshmen was an anxious adventure.
Eustis came from Strong, Maine, and graduated from Colby at the top of his class. With a Harvard master's degree, he returned in to lead the department of business administration. He became full professor and treasurer in , and in the College's first administrative vice president. Shrewd and. One of those he rescued was Jack Deering '55, a Korean War air force veteran who left the downtown campus and felt out of place after returning to the new campus on the H ill.
He was packing his belongings into the trunk of his car to leave school when Millett appeared and convinced him to stay.
Bixler once observed that his vice president' "down-to-earth hrewdne s and astute realism was the perfect foil" for Joh nson' "ebu U ient optim ism. The inherent tension between thrifty money managers and thirsty faculty and student are legendary, and Eustis m ust have felt like the only saver in a sea of eager spenders.
The faculty was always asking for more money, even as students pressed demands for a social center, ''with a dance floor, j uke box, card table and a soda fountain. At a single meeti ng in November , the board voted to complete the buildings under construction, add two science bu ildings, two women's dorm itories, and two fraternity houses.
It was a brave move that thrilled Franklin Johnson, but the College didn't have half the money. It was Eustis who arranged for bank loans and waited anxiously for contributions to come in so he could pay the mounting b ills. If Eustis knew how to make the buffalos on the nickels of his day squeal, he also knew what motivated people.
During a break, Grindall spotted a pile of coal outside Hedman Hall on the old campus and began shoveling it through an open window. Someone called out of the dusk: "Young man, what do you think you are doing? For one sinking moment Grindall thought perhaps he was shoveling coal into a faculty office. Eustis walked off without a word.
The next week Grindall found a ten-cent-an-hour increase in his paycheck. Against the genteel nature of the men he worked for, Eustis had the rougher i nstincts of a street fighter. The organizer of the local union no. Christopher convinced the union to ask for twice as much.
Eustis offered the same dime he had given Grindall. A few workers picketed the construction sites on North Street and Mayflower Hill. Christopher was surprised that his fellow students-and most people in town-seemed uninterested. He was labeled a troublemaker. Bixler scolded him for being disloyal.
When the strike ended, Eustis seized a page of the Alumnus. His message seethed. Also at Bixler's right hand was Ernest Marriner ' As listeners to his weekly radio program could attest, he was a Mainer through and through, and his down east accent was undiluted.
Three years later he joined the College staff as librarian and professor of English. He served as the first dean of men and first dean of faculty, a position he held for a decade until his retirement in Before the era of multiple deans, Marriner was known simply as "the dean.
Nickerson '24, who succeeded Marriner, and Barbara Sherman, twelfth in a line of deans of women that began in Until the b uildings and grounds department got its own home, superintendent Willard Jennison carved out space in the library as well. He and his wife, Helen, lived on the campus.
His big, green Land Rover was everywhere. A dog lover and consummate storyteller, he took care of his crew, and they adored him. He embraced faculty and staff alike, especially the newcomers, THE. Students liked him and they amu ed him. One winter, short of the man power to cart fi rewood to the dorm itory fireplaces, Whalon put a sign near the woodpile: "Property of Colby College: Keep Off. On hearing the sto ry, a trustee quipped that Whalon ought to be made profes or of philosophy.
Good Housekeeping magazine published a n annual Report on Small Colleges in the early s, naming colleges recommended to parents and students. It was the first of the magazine ratings that would soon popularize and proliferate, debunked by colleges not included and hyped to the sky by those that were. Bowdoin and Bates were on the Good Housekeeping list. Colby was not. Bixler knew why, and he struggled mightily to raise the intellectual tone of the place.
It would take money, and money was in short supply. The subsidized Gis were mostly gone; the flood of "war babies" hadn't arrived. Traditionalists wanted the curriculum to stay put.